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Old Testament Revision 1

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A Revelation given to Joseph the Revelator June 1830
The words of God which he spake unto Moses at a time when Moses was caught up into an exceeding high Mountain & he saw God face to face & he talked with him & the glory of God was upon Moses therefore Moses could endure his presence & God spake unto Moses saying Behold I I am the Lord God Almighty & endless is my name for I am without beginning of days or end of years & is this not endless & behold thou art my Son Wherefore look & I will shew thee the workmanship of mine hands but not all for my works are without end & also my words for they never cease wherefore no man can behold all my works except he behold all my glory & no man can behold all my glory & afterwards remain in the flesh & I have a work for thee Moses my Son & thou art in similitude to mine only begotten & mine only begotten is & shall be for he is full of grace & truth but there is none other God beside me & all things are present with me for I know them all And now behold this one thing I shew unto thee Moses my son for thou art in the world & now I shew it thee And it came to pass that Moses looked & beheld the world upon which he was created & as Moses beheld the world & the ends thereof & all the Children of men which was & which was created of the same he greatly marvelled & wondered & the presence of God withdrew from Moses that his glory was not upon Moses & Moses was left unto himself & as he was left unto himself he fell unto the Earth, And it came to pass, that it was for the space of many hours before Moses did again receive his natural strength like unto man, & he saith unto himself Now for this once I know that man is nothing, which thing I never had supposed, but now mine eyes, mine own eyes but not mine eyes for mine eyes could not have beheld for I should have withered & died in his presence but his glory was upon me & I beheld his face for I was transfigered before him And now it came to pass that when Moses had said these words, behold, Satan came tempting him saying, Moses, Son of man, worship me, And it came to pass that Moses looked upon Satan & saith, Who art thou for behold, I am a Son of God in the similitude of his only begotten, & where is thy glory that I should worship thee, for, behold, I could not look upon God except his glory should come upon me, & I were transfigered before him but I can look upon thee in the natural man, if not so surely blessed be the name of my God for his Spirit hath not altogether withdrawn from me or else where is thy glory for it is blackness unto me & I can Judge between thee & God for God said unto me Worship God for him only shalt thou serve Get thee hence Satan deceive me not for God said unto me Thou art after the similitude of mine only begotten & he also gave unto me commandment when he called unto me out of the burning bush Saying call upon God in the name of mine only begotten & worship me And again Moses saith I will not cease to call upon God I have other things to inquire of him for his glory has been upon me & it is glory unto me wherefore I can judge betwixt him & thee depart hence Satan And now when Moses had said these words Satan cried with a loud voice & wrent upon the Earth [p. [1]]

Oliver Cowdery handwriting begins.  


A Revelation given to Joseph the Revelator June 1830
The words of God which he gave <spake> unto Moses at a time  when Moses was caught up into an exceeding high Mountain & he saw  God face to face & he talked with him & the glory of God was upon Mo ses therefore Moses could endure his presence & God spake unto Mo ses saying Behold I I am the Lord God Almighty & endless is  my name for I am without beginning of days or end of years & is this not  endless & behold thou art my Son Wherefore look & I will shew thee the work manship of mine hands but not all for my works are without end & also my wo [r]ds for they never cease wherefore no man can behold all my works except he  behold <all> my glory & no man can behold all my glory & afterwards remain in the  flesh & I have a work for thee Moses my Son & thou art in similitude to my <mine>  only begotten & mine only begotten is & shall be for he is full of grace & truth bu[t]  there is none other God beside me & all things are present with me for I know  them all And now behold this one thing I shew unto thee Moses my  son for thou art in the world & now I shew it thee And it came to  pass that Moses looked & beheld the world upon which he was created &  [as] Moses beheld the world & the ends thereof & all the Children of men which  was & which was created of the same he greatly marvelled & wondered &  the presence of God withdrew from Moses that his glory was not upon  Moses & Moses was left unto himself & as he was left unto himself  he fell unto the Earth, And it came to pass, that it was for the space  of many hours before Moses did again receive his natural strength  [lik]e unto man, & he saith unto himself no Now for this once I know that  [m]an is nothing, which thing I never had supposed, but now mine eyes,  mine own eyes but not mine eyes for mine eyes could not have beheld for I shou ld have withered & died in his presence but his glory was upon me & I be held his face for I was transfigered before him And now it came to  pass that when Moses had said these words, behold, Satan came tempting  him saying, Moses, Son of man, worship me, And it came to pass that  Moses looked upon Satan & saith, Who art thou for behold, I am a  Son of God in the similitude of his only begotten, & where is thy glory that I  should worship thee, for, behold, I could not look upon God except his  glory should come upon me, & I were transfigered before him but I can  look upon thee in the natural man, if not so surely blessed be the name  of my God for his Spirit hath not altogether withdrawn from m[e]  or else where is thy glory for it is blackness unto me & I can Judge betw een thee & God for God said unto me Worship God for him only shalt  thou serve Get thee hence Satan deceive me not for God said unto me  Thou art after the similitude of mine only begotten & he also gave unto  me commandment when he called unto me out of the burning bush Saying  [c]all upon God in the name of mine only begotten & worship me And again  Moses saith I will not cease to call upon God I have other things to  inquire of him for his glory has been upon me & it is glory unto me wherefore  I can judge betwixt him & thee depart hence Satan And now when Mose[s]  had said these words Satan cried with a loud [voice &] wrent upon the Ear[th] [p. [1]]
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In June 1830, only weeks after the Book of Mormon was published (in March) and the Church of Christ organized (in April), JS began dictating to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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a revelation dealing with several key Old Testament figures. The revelation opens with “the words of God which he spake unto Moses,” a visionary experience in which Moses receives a knowledge of God and his Only Begotten and learns the purpose of creation. He sees the spirit creation of all things, the appointment of Christ during a premortal council, the effects of the Fall, and the introduction of the gospel to fallen mankind. Moses understands the place of man in the divine plan and foresees his own future role. The manuscript continues with the story of Adam and Eve and several generations of their descendants. A detailed exposition of the experiences of Enoch is included, even though the biblical account contains only a brief mention of that ancient prophet. The manuscript records Enoch’s prophecies of the coming of the Son of Man and recounts the ministry of Noah and the life of Abraham.
Like many other revelations, this manuscript bears a simple heading. Written in the hand of scribe Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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, the heading reads, “A Revelation given to Joseph the Revelator June 1830.” What prompted this revelation when JS first began dictating in June 1830 is unknown, but the resulting lengthy manuscript opened an ambitious project of biblical expansion and revision. After the vision of Moses, which recounts a conversation with Deity unrelated to known biblical texts, on the third page and under a new heading (“A Revelation given to the Elders of the Church of Christ On the First Book of Moses”) the manuscript begins an account of the Creation that resembles Genesis 1. The lengthy opening vision and some portions later in the manuscript record prophetic experience at best hinted at in biblical texts, but as the transcript unfolded over the next several months, it became a commentary on and often an expansion of the King James Version of Genesis.
At some point during the creation of this manuscript, JS came to see such “restoration” of lost biblical texts as part of his prophetic mission. Book of Mormon passages he dictated to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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in 1829 spoke of “plain and precious things” missing from “the Book, which is the Book of the Lamb of God” and promised that these “plain and most precious parts of the Gospel of the Lamb” would be restored. (Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 30–31 [1 Nephi 13:28, 32].) On the third page of this manuscript, just before the beginning of the creation account, this revelation similarly declares that lost scriptural passages “shall be had again among the Children of men.” An early December 1830 revelation was explicit. After affirming that JS had been given keys to unlock ancient knowledge, the revelation addressed Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, commanding “that thou shalt write for [JS] and the scriptures shall be given even as they are in mine own bosom.” (Revelation, 7 Dec. 1830, in Doctrine and Covenants 11:5, 1835 ed. [D&C 35:20].)
This manuscript was begun at a time when JS and his religious associates in the Susquehanna valley of northern Pennsylvania

Area first settled by Swedish immigrants, 1628. William Penn received grant for territory from King Charles II, 1681, and established British settlement, 1682. Philadelphia was center of government for original thirteen U.S. colonies from time of Revolutionary...

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(JS resided in Harmony

Located in northeastern Pennsylvania. Area settled, by 1787. Organized 1809. Population in 1830 about 340. Population in 1840 about 520. Contained Harmony village (no longer in existence). Josiah Stowell hired JS to help look for treasure in area, Oct. 1825...

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) and southern New York

Located in northeast region of U.S. Area settled by Dutch traders, 1620s; later governed by Britain, 1664–1776. Admitted to U.S. as state, 1788. Population in 1810 about 1,000,000; in 1820 about 1,400,000; in 1830 about 1,900,000; and in 1840 about 2,400,...

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(a number of followers lived in nearby Colesville

Area settled, beginning 1785. Formed from Windsor Township, Apr. 1821. Population in 1830 about 2,400. Villages within township included Harpursville, Nineveh, and Colesville. Susquehanna River ran through eastern portion of township. JS worked for Joseph...

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) faced intense opposition from both neighbors and civil authorities. Despite such pressures, JS and Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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may have begun this manuscript in Harmony, but in part to escape harassment later in June they moved north to Fayette Township

Located in northern part of county between Seneca and Cayuga lakes. Area settled, by 1790. Officially organized as Washington Township, 14 Mar. 1800. Name changed to Fayette, 6 Apr. 1808. Population in 1830 about 3,200. Population in 1840 about 3,700. Significant...

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, New York, a more hospitable environment. When Cowdery departed Fayette in early fall 1830 for a mission to the West, he had he written nine manuscript pages from JS’s dictation. His replacement as scribe, John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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, inscribed seventeen lines under the date of 21 October 1830, and then another page and a half under the date of 30 November 1830. The next day Emma Smith

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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began writing and inscribed two pages under the date of 1 December 1830. After his early December arrival, Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, an educated new convert from Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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, became the main scribe (as commanded in the revelation already noted). Most of the remainder of the sixty-page manuscript is in his hand.
A January 1831 move to Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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interrupted progress on what was now clearly a work of biblical revision, but JS and Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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resumed work in February and finished this manuscript in March. After John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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made a second copy of the completed manuscript, he documented his work by inserting a final date at the end of this copy: “April 5th 1831 transcribed thus far.” This original manuscript was then retired and JS and Rigdon continued the ambitious Bible revision using Whitmer’s copy. Bible revision remained an important concern of JS into 1833.
Note: The transcript of Old Testament Revision 1 presented here is used with generous permission of the Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center. It was published earlier, with some differences in style, in Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith's New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004), 75–152.

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