43990396

Doctrine and Covenants, 1844

forsaketh that evil one. Every spirit of man was innocent in the beginning, and God having redeemed man from the fall, men became again in their infant state, innocent before God. And that wicked one cometh and taketh away light and truth, through disobedience, from the children of men, and because of the tradition of their fathers. But I have commanded you, to bring up your children in light and truth: but verily I say unto you, my servant Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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, you have continued under this condemnation; you have not taught your children light and truth, according to the commandments, and that wicked one hath power, as yet, over you, and this is the cause of your affliction. And now a commandment I give unto you, if you will be delivered, you shall set in order your own house, for there are many things that are not right in your house.
7 Verily I say unto my servant Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, that in some things he hath not kept the commandments, concerning his children: therefore, firstly set in order thy house.
8 Verily I say unto my servant Joseph Smith, jr. or, in other words, I will call you friends, for you are my friends, and ye shall have an inheritance with me. I called you servants for the world’s sake, and ye are their servants for my sake, and now verily I say unto Joseph Smith, jr. you have not kept the commandments, and must needs stand rebuked before the Lord. Your family must needs repent and forsake some things, and give more earnest heed unto your sayings, or be remov [p. 326]
forsaketh that evil one. Every spirit of man  was innocent in the beginning, and God hav ing redeemed man from the fall, men became  again in their infant state, innocent before  God. And that wicked one cometh and tak eth away light and truth, through disobedience,  from the children of men, and because of the  tradition of their fathers. But I have com manded you, to bring up your children in light  and truth: but verily I say unto you, my ser vant Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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, you have con tinued under this condemnation; you have not  taught your children light and truth, accord ing to the commandments, and that wicked one  hath power, as yet, over you, and this is the  cause of your affliction. And now a command ment I give unto you, if you will be delivered,  you shall set in order your own house, for there  are many things that are not right in your  house.
7 Verily I say unto my servant Sidney  Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, that in some things he hath not kept  the commandments, concerning his children:  therefore, firstly set in order thy house.
8 Verily I say unto my servant Joseph  Smith, jr. or, in other words, I will call you  friends, for you are my friends, and ye shall  have an inheritance with me. I called you  servants for the world’s sake, and ye are their  servants for my sake, and now verily I say  unto Joseph Smith, jr. you have not kept the  commandments, and must needs stand rebuk ed before the Lord. Your family must needs  repent and forsake some things, and give more  earnest heed unto your sayings, or be remov [p. 326]
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The late 1830s and early 1840s were a period of rapid growth for the young church. As converts continued to join in large numbers, the need for a new edition of the Doctrine and Covenants became increasingly evident. In 1839, apostle Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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, who had stopped in New York

Dutch founded New Netherland colony, 1625. Incorporated under British control and renamed New York, 1664. Harbor contributed to economic and population growth of city; became largest city in American colonies. British troops defeated Continental Army under...

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on his way to serve a mission in England, wrote to JS describing the growth of the church and missionary work in the eastern United States

North American constitutional republic. Constitution ratified, 17 Sept. 1787. Population in 1805 about 6,000,000; in 1830 about 13,000,000; and in 1844 about 20,000,000. Louisiana Purchase, 1803, doubled size of U.S. Consisted of seventeen states at time ...

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. In his letter he stated that there was “a great call for our Books” and proposed plans to begin printing the Book of Mormon and other church publications.1

Parley P. Pratt, New York City, NY, to JS, [Nauvoo, IL], 22 Nov. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 77. Pratt did not specifically propose to publish the revelations.  


Requests for church publications continued to come from other branches of the church during the early 1840s.2

See, for example, Charles Thompson, Batavia, NY, 2 Feb. 1841, Letter to the editor, Times and Seasons, 15 Mar. 1841, 2:349: “I would say further, there is a great call for Books of Mormon here: had I one hundred I could dispose of them all in a short time, and also the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and Hymn Books.”  


Church leaders in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, Illinois, expressed a concern about scriptures being published in the United States without the “immediate inspection” of the First Presidency of the church.3

Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to Parley P. Pratt, New York City, NY, 22 Dec. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 80–81; Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to Lucian Foster, Jan. 1840, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 83–84; Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to JS and Elias Higbee, Washington DC, 2 Jan. 1840, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 92–93. This restriction did not apply in the mission in England, perhaps because of the cost of shipping books overseas from the United States. JS told the Quorum of the Twelve that he had no objection to the Doctrine and Covenants being published in England and that “if there is a great demand for them,” he “would rather encourage it.” (JS, Nauvoo, IL, to “Beloved Brethren,” [England], 15 Dec. 1840, JS Collection, CHL; see also H. Smith to P. Pratt, 22 Dec. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 81.)  


Though careful about the authority under which scripture such as the Doctrine and Covenants would be published, the leadership in Nauvoo made it clear that the publication of scripture was a top priority. Published minutes of a conference held in October 1840 indicated that another edition of the Book of Mormon was nearly completed and that arrangements had been made for printing the Doctrine and Covenants and the church hymnal.4

“Minutes of the General Conference,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:186. The original minutes from which the published version came did not mention the Doctrine and Covenants. A First Presidency report published in the same issue of Times and Seasons stated that arrangements were being made for printing the Doctrine and Covenants. (General Church Minutes, 3 Oct. 1840; “Report from the Presidency,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:187–188.)  


In the spring of 1841, Ebenezer Robinson

25 May 1816–11 Mar. 1891. Printer, editor, publisher. Born at Floyd (near Rome), Oneida Co., New York. Son of Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown. Moved to Utica, Oneida Co., ca. 1831, and learned printing trade at Utica Observer. Moved to Ravenna, Portage Co....

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turned his attention to stereotyping what would become the second edition of the Doctrine and Covenants,5

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, July 1890, 302. Robinson acquired stereotyping equipment at least by early January 1841. Stereotyping, a common nineteenth-century printing practice, was intended to speed up the process of mass printing. After setting type for a page, the printer created a mold of the type, into which he poured hot lead, thereby creating a plate from which to print each page. This allowed the individual pieces of type to be reused to set additional pages. The plates could be reused for later printings. (Advertisement, Times and Seasons, 1 Jan. 1841, 2:272; Gaskell, New Introduction to Bibliography, 201–204.)  


using the first edition of the volume as the primary source text. Robinson, an experienced editor and printer, had recently assisted with printing the third edition of the Book of Mormon (1840).6

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, May 1890, 259; see also “Minutes of the General Conference,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:186. Robinson was also coeditor and copublisher of the Nauvoo newspaper Times and Seasons through December 1840. Robinson and Don Carlos Smith began publishing that newspaper in 1839 as partners, but their partnership dissolved in “mutual consent” in mid-December 1840, with Smith taking charge of the newspaper and Robinson of the “Books, or Book & fancy printing.” Robinson began editing and publishing the newspaper again in August 1841, following the death of Don Carlos Smith. (“Dissolution,” Times and Seasons, 15 Dec. 1840, 2:256; “To the Patrons of the Times and Seasons,” Times and Seasons, 16 Aug. 1841, 2:511.)  


At the time Robinson began stereotyping the Doctrine and Covenants, the Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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printing establishment was housed in a frame building at the corner of Water and Bain streets, near the river

Principal U.S. river running southward from Itasca Lake, Minnesota, to Gulf of Mexico. Covered 3,160-mile course, 1839 (now about 2,350 miles). Drains about 1,100,000 square miles. Steamboat travel on Mississippi very important in 1830s and 1840s for shipping...

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. Before the end of 1841, it moved into a larger building, located across the street from the earlier building at the same intersection.7

Bray, “Times and Seasons: An Archaeological Perspective,” 67–73; Notice, Times and Seasons, 1 Dec. 1841, 3:615. Besides the two structures mentioned, Bray identifies two additional buildings in Nauvoo that housed the printing establishment for a time, but those other buildings were not being used for printing at the time the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants was printed.  


In early 1842, while the stereotyping work was still ongoing, control of the printing establishment was transferred from Robinson

25 May 1816–11 Mar. 1891. Printer, editor, publisher. Born at Floyd (near Rome), Oneida Co., New York. Son of Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown. Moved to Utica, Oneida Co., ca. 1831, and learned printing trade at Utica Observer. Moved to Ravenna, Portage Co....

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to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. A January 1842 revelation dictated by JS commanded the Twelve to “take in hand the Editorial department of the Times and Seasons,” ratifying a decision that had already been discussed in earlier meetings of the Quorum of the Twelve.8

JS, Journal, 28 Jan. 1842, p. 67; Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Minutes, 31 Nov. 1841 and 17 Jan. 1842.  


According to Wilford Woodruff

1 Mar. 1807–2 Sept. 1898. Farmer, miller. Born at Farmington, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of Aphek Woodruff and Beulah Thompson. Moved to Richland, Oswego Co., New York, 1832. Baptized into LDS church by Zera Pulsipher, 31 Dec. 1833, near Richland. Ordained...

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, a member of that quorum, the Twelve were to “govern the printing of the Times & Seasons & all the church publications as they are directed by my Holy Spirit in the midst of their councils.”9

Woodruff, Journal, 3 Feb. 1842. The Twelve had already enjoyed success with printing a number of publications in England, such as the 1840 hymnal, printed in Manchester; the Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star, begun in May 1840; and the 1841 edition of the Book of Mormon, printed in Liverpool.  


Ebenezer Robinson recalled telling JS and the other leaders “that they could have the Times and Seasons, but they must [also] take the whole establishment, including the stereotype foundery, book-bindery, and the whole book concern.”10

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, Sept. 1890, 325; emphasis in original.  


This request was accepted, and Robinson sold the entire business to JS for the sum of $6,600 on 4 February 1842.11

Contract, Ebenezer Robinson to Willard Richards, Nauvoo, IL, 4 Feb. 1844, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU; Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, Oct. 1890, 346; Woodruff, Journal, 4 Feb. 1842.  


Wilford Woodruff and fellow apostle John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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were placed in charge of the printing office.12

See Ebenezer Robinson, “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons, 15 Feb. 1842, 3:695–696; and Woodruff , Journal, 3 and 19 Feb. 1842.  


The Doctrine and Covenants had likely been stereotyped through page 109 when Robinson

25 May 1816–11 Mar. 1891. Printer, editor, publisher. Born at Floyd (near Rome), Oneida Co., New York. Son of Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown. Moved to Utica, Oneida Co., ca. 1831, and learned printing trade at Utica Observer. Moved to Ravenna, Portage Co....

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left.13

“No 4 Joseph Smith a/c Dr as pr Printing Office Books,” ca. Jan. 1846, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.  


It is unknown who else assisted in the initial stereotyping, but Robinson’s departure delayed the project’s completion. Robinson recalled working with JS, comparing the 1830 and 1837 editions of the Book of Mormon in preparation for the publication of the 1840 edition.14

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, May 1890, 259.  


If similar preliminary work was done before the stereotyping of the Doctrine and Covenants commenced, JS likely would have had some input in the format of the newer edition.15

JS’s involvement is hinted at in a notice printed in two issues of Times and Seasons in early 1842. After announcing that the office of the recorder (Willard Richards) would be open to receive tithing donations only on Saturdays, the notice explained: “This regulation is necessary, to give the Trustee [JS] and Recorder time to arrange the Book of Mormon, New Translation of the Bible, Hymn Book, and Doctrine and Covenants for the press; all of which the brethren are anxious to see, in their most perfect form.” (“Tithings and Consecrations,” Times and Seasons, 15 Jan. 1842, 3:667; 1 Feb. 1842, 3:677.)  


Whatever the preparatory process, the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants is—in content, arrangement, basic format, and section and verse numbering—largely a reprint of the 1835 edition. The 1844 edition matches the 1835 edition almost word for word and character for character, except for minor corrections and stylistic changes and a few substantive changes.16

The 1844 edition made light changes in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and versification. These changes included employing British spelling for some words, such as “Savior” (Saviour). Aside from adding eight new sections (as discussed later in this introduction), the 1844 edition made only a small number of substantive changes. For example, the phrase “and we beheld and lo, he is fallen! is fallen! even a son of the morning,” which appears in verse 3 of section 91 of the 1835 edition, was deleted in verse 3 of section 92 in the 1844 edition (Vision, 16 Feb. 1832 [D&C 76:27]). The deletion could have been accidental, since there is another phrase ending “son of the morning” earlier in the same sentence. A comprehensive study of the variants between the two editions is beyond the scope of this volume.  


Work on printing the Doctrine and Covenants did not resume until a year after the printing establishment had changed hands. According to Woodruff

1 Mar. 1807–2 Sept. 1898. Farmer, miller. Born at Farmington, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of Aphek Woodruff and Beulah Thompson. Moved to Richland, Oswego Co., New York, 1832. Baptized into LDS church by Zera Pulsipher, 31 Dec. 1833, near Richland. Ordained...

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, stereotyping recommenced on 30 January 1843.17

Woodruff, Journal, 1–4 Feb. 1843.  


JS and William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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read proofs of this work a few weeks later.18

JS, Journal, 3 and 14 Feb. 1843.  


By the end of 1843, the printers had stereotyped to page 409 (partway into the twelfth gathering), leaving a modest amount of stereotyping to be completed the following year.19

In what appears to be an end-of-year account, the work of stereotyping to page 409 was recorded on 30 December 1843. (“No 4 Joseph Smith a/c Dr as pr Printing Office Books,” ca. Jan. 1846, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.)  


It appears that the printing may have been delayed for want of paper and other materials. On 7 November 1843, the Quorum of the Twelve appointed Woodruff, Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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, Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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, Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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, and John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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, all members of that quorum, as a committee to raise five hundred dollars “to get paper &c to print the Doctrine and covenants.”20

Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Minutes, 7 Nov. 1843; see also Woodruff, Journal, 7 Nov. 1843. A few weeks earlier, a newspaper notice called for donations to support the church’s printing establishment. (“End of the Third Volume,” Times and Seasons, 15 Oct. 1842, 3:958.)  


A month later, on 5 December, JS advised the Twelve “to raise money to send Elder [Orson] Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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east to get paper to print Doctrine & Covenants— get new type & metal for stereotyping.”21

JS, Journal, 5 Dec. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.  


By the following summer, the work was nearly complete. A notice dated 11 June 1844 and published the next day in the Nauvoo Neighbor announced optimistically: “The Book of Doctrine and Covenants will be published in about one month from this time. Those wishing for an early supply had better make immediate application.”22

“Notice,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 12 June 1844, [3].  


A little over two weeks later, however, JS and Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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were killed by a mob at Carthage

Located eighteen miles southeast of Nauvoo. Settled 1831. Designated Hancock Co. seat, Mar. 1833. Incorporated as town, 27 Feb. 1837. Population in 1839 about 300. Population in 1844 about 400. Site of anti-Mormon meetings and resolutions, early 1840s. Site...

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, Illinois, and printer John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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was seriously wounded, delaying the printing of the volume yet again.23

Taylor later recalled that before going to Carthage with JS and Hyrum Smith, he removed the “Type, Stereotype plates and most of the valuable things . . . from the printing office” for fear the office would be burned by enemies. (John Taylor, Statement, 23 Aug. 1856, p. 26, Historian’s Office, JS History Draft Notes, [ca. 1840–1880], CHL.)  


The above-mentioned notice continued to run in the Nauvoo Neighbor from 26 June through 30 October 1844, though copies of the volume were available well before the 30 October issue.
In a letter to his wife written from Carthage

Located eighteen miles southeast of Nauvoo. Settled 1831. Designated Hancock Co. seat, Mar. 1833. Incorporated as town, 27 Feb. 1837. Population in 1839 about 300. Population in 1844 about 400. Site of anti-Mormon meetings and resolutions, early 1840s. Site...

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two days before the killings, John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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stated that “1000 copies of the Book of Doctrine & Covenants” should be printed “as quick as possible.”24

John Taylor, Carthage, IL, to Leonora Taylor, Nauvoo, IL, 25 June 1844, John Taylor, Collection, CHL.  


At a 28 July 1844 church meeting, William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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announced that names would be taken of those desiring to purchase the volume at one dollar and twenty-five cents. Two weeks later, Phelps stated in another meeting that the “1000 copies [of the Doctrine and Covenants] are not all yet taken up,” suggesting that the books were sold by subscription.25

General Church Minutes, 28 July and 8 Aug. 1844.  


The date on which the new edition was first available to the public is unknown, but the volume was in use soon after its release: it was cited in the 2 September 1844 issue of Times and Seasons, and Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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quoted from it at a meeting on 8 September 1844.26

“Ten Virgins,” Times and Seasons, 2 Sept. 1844, 5:636; “Trial of Elder Rigdon,” Times and Seasons, 15 Sept. 1844, 5:647–655.  


Because the book had been stereotyped, keeping it in print was practical. A second printing of the book was authorized the following year and a third in 1846, presumably indicating a short supply of the books and a growing demand.27

The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God, comp. Joseph Smith, 3rd ed. (Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1845); The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Reve[l]ations of God, comp. Joseph Smith, 4th ed. (Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1846).  


Besides the individuals identified above as having assisted with or overseen work on the publication, others may have contributed as compilers, editors, typesetters, or printers. A number of people worked in the Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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printing office

Located at four different sites from 1839–1846: cellar of warehouse on bank of Mississippi River, June–Aug. 1839; frame building on northeast corner of Water and Bain streets, Nov. 1839–Nov. 1841; newly built printing establishment on northwest corner of ...

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at the time the volume was being produced, but records do not identify which of them had a hand in this project.
The 1844 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants is essentially a reprint of the 1835 edition, with the addition of eight new items. The second edition reprinted the seven “Lectures on Faith” and all 103 numbered sections included in the “Covenants and Commandments” part of the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants. The 1835 edition included two sections numbered 66 (here referred to as 66a and 66b). This mistake was corrected in the 1844 edition. As a result, sections 1 through 66a of the 1835 edition correspond with sections 1 through 66 of the 1844 edition, and sections 66b through 99 in the 1835 edition correspond with sections 67 through 100 in the 1844 edition. The final three sections of the 1835 edition, sections 100 through 102, were numbered as sections 108 through 110 in the 1844 edition.
The eight new items added to the 1844 edition became sections 101 through 107 and section 111. Sections 101 and 102—both revelations regarding the redemption of Zion—were available for use in the 1835 publication but were not printed therein. Sections 103 (which was printed without a section number), 104, and 107 are JS revelations dictated after 1835. Sections 105 and 106 are JS letters written in the 1840s. Section 111, a tribute to the slain JS and Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, is believed to have been written by John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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, the publisher of the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants and an eyewitness to the murders. It was composed after most of the work on the volume had been completed. Only by using a smaller typeface than what appears in the rest of the volume were the printers able to fit this last section into the available space following section 110 and preceding a brief three-page “index.” The editors of the 1844 edition used a variety of sources to set type for these eight items.28

Sources used by editors of the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants for the newly added items include Revelation Book 2, Times and Seasons, JS’s journal, and various loose manuscripts.  


The sources used by the editors contained other revelations and letters that would have been candidates for publication in the Doctrine and Covenants, and the reasons for selecting the particular revelations and letters that were included are unknown.

Facts