43990396

Doctrine and Covenants, 1844

ple to contention, concerning the points of my  doctrine; and in these things they do err, for  they do wrest the scriptures, and do not under stand them: therefore, I will unfold unto them  this great mystery, for behold, I will gather  them as a hen gathereth her chickens under her  wings, if they will not harden their hearts; yea,  if they will come, they may, and partake of  the waters of life freely.
16 Behold this is my doctrine: whosoever  repenteth and cometh unto me, the same is my  church, whosoever declareth more or less than  this, the same is not of me, but is against me:  therefore he is not of my church.
17 And now, behold whosoever is of my  church, and endureth of my church to the end,  him will I establish upon my Rock, and the  gates of hell shall not prevail against them.
18 And now, remember the words of him  who is the life and the light of the world, your  Redeemer, your Lord and your God: Amen.
 

Revelation, May 1829–A [D&C 11]

SECTION XXXVII.
 
Revelation given to Hyrum Smith, May, 1839 [1829].
 
1 A great and marvelous work is about to  come forth among the children of men: behold  I am God and give heed to my word, which is  quick and powerful, sharper than a two-edged  sword, to the dividing asunder of both joints  and marrow: therefore, give heed unto my  word.
2 Behold the field is white already to har vest, therefore whoso desireth to reap, let him [p. 247]
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The late 1830s and early 1840s were a period of rapid growth for the young church. As converts continued to join in large numbers, the need for a new edition of the Doctrine and Covenants became increasingly evident. In 1839, apostle Parley P. Pratt, who had stopped in New York on his way to serve a mission in England, wrote to JS describing the growth of the church and missionary work in the eastern United States. In his letter he stated that there was “a great call for our Books” and proposed plans to begin printing the Book of Mormon and other church publications.1

Parley P. Pratt, New York City, NY, to JS, [Nauvoo, IL], 22 Nov. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 77. Pratt did not specifically propose to publish the revelations.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

JS Letterbook 2 / Smith, Joseph. “Copies of Letters, &c. &c.,” 1839–1843. Joseph Smith Collection. CHL.

Requests for church publications continued to come from other branches of the church during the early 1840s.2

See, for example, Charles Thompson, Batavia, NY, 2 Feb. 1841, Letter to the editor, Times and Seasons, 15 Mar. 1841, 2:349: “I would say further, there is a great call for Books of Mormon here: had I one hundred I could dispose of them all in a short time, and also the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and Hymn Books.”
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

Church leaders in Nauvoo, Illinois, expressed a concern about scriptures being published in the United States without the “immediate inspection” of the First Presidency of the church.3

Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to Parley P. Pratt, New York City, NY, 22 Dec. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 80–81; Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to Lucian Foster, Jan. 1840, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 83–84; Hyrum Smith, Nauvoo, IL, to JS and Elias Higbee, Washington DC, 2 Jan. 1840, in JS Letterbook 2, pp. 92–93. This restriction did not apply in the mission in England, perhaps because of the cost of shipping books overseas from the United States. JS told the Quorum of the Twelve that he had no objection to the Doctrine and Covenants being published in England and that “if there is a great demand for them,” he “would rather encourage it.” (JS, Nauvoo, IL, to “Beloved Brethren,” [England], 15 Dec. 1840, JS Collection, CHL; see also H. Smith to P. Pratt, 22 Dec. 1839, in JS Letterbook 2, p. 81.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

JS Letterbook 2 / Smith, Joseph. “Copies of Letters, &c. &c.,” 1839–1843. Joseph Smith Collection. CHL.

Smith, Joseph. Collection, 1827–1846. CHL.

Though careful about the authority under which scripture such as the Doctrine and Covenants would be published, the leadership in Nauvoo made it clear that the publication of scripture was a top priority. Published minutes of a conference held in October 1840 indicated that another edition of the Book of Mormon was nearly completed and that arrangements had been made for printing the Doctrine and Covenants and the church hymnal.4

“Minutes of the General Conference,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:186. The original minutes from which the published version came did not mention the Doctrine and Covenants. A First Presidency report published in the same issue of Times and Seasons stated that arrangements were being made for printing the Doctrine and Covenants. (General Church Minutes, 3 Oct. 1840; “Report from the Presidency,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:187–188.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

General Church Minutes, 1839–1877. CHL.

In the spring of 1841, Ebenezer Robinson turned his attention to stereotyping what would become the second edition of the Doctrine and Covenants,5

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, July 1890, 302. Robinson acquired stereotyping equipment at least by early January 1841. Stereotyping, a common nineteenth-century printing practice, was intended to speed up the process of mass printing. After setting type for a page, the printer created a mold of the type, into which he poured hot lead, thereby creating a plate from which to print each page. This allowed the individual pieces of type to be reused to set additional pages. The plates could be reused for later printings. (Advertisement, Times and Seasons, 1 Jan. 1841, 2:272; Gaskell, New Introduction to Bibliography, 201–204.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2009.

using the first edition of the volume as the primary source text. Robinson, an experienced editor and printer, had recently assisted with printing the third edition of the Book of Mormon (1840).6

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, May 1890, 259; see also “Minutes of the General Conference,” Times and Seasons, Oct. 1840, 1:186. Robinson was also coeditor and copublisher of the Nauvoo newspaper Times and Seasons through December 1840. Robinson and Don Carlos Smith began publishing that newspaper in 1839 as partners, but their partnership dissolved in “mutual consent” in mid-December 1840, with Smith taking charge of the newspaper and Robinson of the “Books, or Book & fancy printing.” Robinson began editing and publishing the newspaper again in August 1841, following the death of Don Carlos Smith. (“Dissolution,” Times and Seasons, 15 Dec. 1840, 2:256; “To the Patrons of the Times and Seasons,” Times and Seasons, 16 Aug. 1841, 2:511.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

At the time Robinson began stereotyping the Doctrine and Covenants, the Nauvoo printing establishment was housed in a frame building at the corner of Water and Bain streets, near the river. Before the end of 1841, it moved into a larger building, located across the street from the earlier building at the same intersection.7

Bray, “Times and Seasons: An Archaeological Perspective,” 67–73; Notice, Times and Seasons, 1 Dec. 1841, 3:615. Besides the two structures mentioned, Bray identifies two additional buildings in Nauvoo that housed the printing establishment for a time, but those other buildings were not being used for printing at the time the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants was printed.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Bray, Robert T. “Times and Seasons: An Archaeological Perspective on Early Latter Day Saints Printing.” Historical Archaeology 13 (1979): 53–119.

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

In early 1842, while the stereotyping work was still ongoing, control of the printing establishment was transferred from Robinson to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. A January 1842 revelation dictated by JS commanded the Twelve to “take in hand the Editorial department of the Times and Seasons,” ratifying a decision that had already been discussed in earlier meetings of the Quorum of the Twelve.8

JS, Journal, 28 Jan. 1842, p. 67, JS Collection, CHL; Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Minutes, 31 Nov. 1841 and 17 Jan. 1842.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Minutes, 1840–1844. CHL.

According to Wilford Woodruff, a member of that quorum, the Twelve were to “govern the printing of the Times & Seasons & all the church publications as they are directed by my Holy Spirit in the midst of their councils.”9

Woodruff, Journal, 3 Feb. 1842. The Twelve had already enjoyed success with printing a number of publications in England, such as the 1840 hymnal, printed in Manchester; the Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star, begun in May 1840; and the 1841 edition of the Book of Mormon, printed in Liverpool.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

Ebenezer Robinson recalled telling JS and the other leaders “that they could have the Times and Seasons, but they must [also] take the whole establishment, including the stereotype foundery, book-bindery, and the whole book concern.”10

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, Sept. 1890, 325; emphasis in original.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

This request was accepted, and Robinson sold the entire business to JS for the sum of $6,600 on 4 February 1842.11

Contract, Ebenezer Robinson to Willard Richards, Nauvoo, IL, 4 Feb. 1844, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU; Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, Oct. 1890, 346; Woodruff, Journal, 4 Feb. 1842.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Whitney, Newel K. Papers, 1825–1906. BYU.

The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

Wilford Woodruff and fellow apostle John Taylor were placed in charge of the printing office.12

See Ebenezer Robinson, “Valedictory,” Times and Seasons, 15 Feb. 1842, 3:695–696; and Woodruff , Journal, 3 and 19 Feb. 1842.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

The Doctrine and Covenants had likely been stereotyped through page 109 when Robinson left.13

“No 4 Joseph Smith a/c Dr as pr Printing Office Books,” ca. Jan. 1846, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Whitney, Newel K. Papers, 1825–1906. BYU.

It is unknown who else assisted in the initial stereotyping, but Robinson’s departure delayed the project’s completion. Robinson recalled working with JS, comparing the 1830 and 1837 editions of the Book of Mormon in preparation for the publication of the 1840 edition.14

Ebenezer Robinson, “Items of Personal History of the Editor,” The Return, May 1890, 259.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

The Return. Davis City, IA, 1889–1891; Richmond, MO, 1892–1893; Davis City, 1895–1896; Denver, 1898; Independence, MO, 1899–1900.

If similar preliminary work was done before the stereotyping of the Doctrine and Covenants commenced, JS likely would have had some input in the format of the newer edition.15

JS’s involvement is hinted at in a notice printed in two issues of Times and Seasons in early 1842. After announcing that the office of the recorder (Willard Richards) would be open to receive tithing donations only on Saturdays, the notice explained: “This regulation is necessary, to give the Trustee [JS] and Recorder time to arrange the Book of Mormon, New Translation of the Bible, Hymn Book, and Doctrine and Covenants for the press; all of which the brethren are anxious to see, in their most perfect form.” (“Tithings and Consecrations,” Times and Seasons, 15 Jan. 1842, 3:667; 1 Feb. 1842, 3:677.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

Whatever the preparatory process, the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants is—in content, arrangement, basic format, and section and verse numbering—largely a reprint of the 1835 edition. The 1844 edition matches the 1835 edition almost word for word and character for character, except for minor corrections and stylistic changes and a few substantive changes.16

The 1844 edition made light changes in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and versification. These changes included employing British spelling for some words, such as “Savior” (Saviour). Aside from adding eight new sections (as discussed later in this introduction), the 1844 edition made only a small number of substantive changes. For example, the phrase “and we beheld and lo, he is fallen! is fallen! even a son of the morning,” which appears in verse 3 of section 91 of the 1835 edition, was deleted in verse 3 of section 92 in the 1844 edition (Vision, 16 Feb. 1832 [D&C 76:27]). The deletion could have been accidental, since there is another phrase ending “son of the morning” earlier in the same sentence. A comprehensive study of the variants between the two editions is beyond the scope of this volume.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God. Compiled by Joseph Smith. 2nd ed. Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1844. Selections also available in Robin Scott Jensen, Richard E. Turley Jr., Riley M. Lorimer, eds., Revelations and Translations, Volume 2: Published Revelations. Vol. 2 of the Revelations and Translations series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman (Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2011).

Work on printing the Doctrine and Covenants did not resume until a year after the printing establishment had changed hands. According to Woodruff, stereotyping recommenced on 30 January 1843.17

Woodruff, Journal, 1–4 Feb. 1843.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

JS and William W. Phelps read proofs of this work a few weeks later.18

JS, Journal, 3 and 14 Feb. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.  

 
By the end of 1843, the printers had stereotyped to page 409 (partway into the twelfth gathering), leaving a modest amount of stereotyping to be completed the following year.19

In what appears to be an end-of-year account, the work of stereotyping to page 409 was recorded on 30 December 1843. (“No 4 Joseph Smith a/c Dr as pr Printing Office Books,” ca. Jan. 1846, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Whitney, Newel K. Papers, 1825–1906. BYU.

It appears that the printing may have been delayed for want of paper and other materials. On 7 November 1843, the Quorum of the Twelve appointed Woodruff, Brigham Young, Parley P. Pratt, Willard Richards, and John Taylor, all members of that quorum, as a committee to raise five hundred dollars “to get paper &c to print the Doctrine and covenants.”20

Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Minutes, 7 Nov. 1843; see also Woodruff, Journal, 7 Nov. 1843. A few weeks earlier, a newspaper notice called for donations to support the church’s printing establishment. (“End of the Third Volume,” Times and Seasons, 15 Oct. 1842, 3:958.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Minutes, 1840–1844. CHL.

Woodruff, Wilford. Journals, 1833–1898. Wilford Woodruff, Journals and Papers, 1828–1898. CHL. Also available as Wilford Woodruff’s Journals, 1833–1898, edited by Scott G. Kenney, 9 vols. (Midvale, UT: Signature Books, 1983–1985).

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

A month later, on 5 December, JS advised the Twelve “to raise money to send Elder [Orson] Hyde east to get paper to print Doctrine & Covenants— get new type & metal for stereotyping.”21

JS, Journal, 5 Dec. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.  

 
By the following summer, the work was nearly complete. A notice dated 11 June 1844 and published the next day in the Nauvoo Neighbor announced optimistically: “The Book of Doctrine and Covenants will be published in about one month from this time. Those wishing for an early supply had better make immediate application.”22

“Notice,” Nauvoo Neighbor, 12 June 1844, [3].
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Nauvoo Neighbor. Nauvoo, IL. 1843–1845.

A little over two weeks later, however, JS and Hyrum Smith were killed by a mob at Carthage, Illinois, and printer John Taylor was seriously wounded, delaying the printing of the volume yet again.23

Taylor later recalled that before going to Carthage with JS and Hyrum Smith, he removed the “Type, Stereotype plates and most of the valuable things . . . from the printing office” for fear the office would be burned by enemies. (John Taylor, Statement, 23 Aug. 1856, p. 26, Historian’s Office, JS History Draft Notes, [ca. 1840–1880], CHL.)
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Historian’s Office. Joseph Smith History Draft Notes, ca. 1840–1880. CHL.

The above-mentioned notice continued to run in the Nauvoo Neighbor from 26 June through 30 October 1844, though copies of the volume were available well before the 30 October issue.
In a letter to his wife written from Carthage two days before the killings, John Taylor stated that “1000 copies of the Book of Doctrine & Covenants” should be printed “as quick as possible.”24

John Taylor, Carthage, IL, to Leonora Taylor, Nauvoo, IL, 25 June 1844, John Taylor, Collection, CHL.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Taylor, John. Collection, 1829–1894. CHL.

At a 28 July 1844 church meeting, William W. Phelps announced that names would be taken of those desiring to purchase the volume at one dollar and twenty-five cents. Two weeks later, Phelps stated in another meeting that the “1000 copies [of the Doctrine and Covenants] are not all yet taken up,” suggesting that the books were sold by subscription.25

General Church Minutes, 28 July and 8 Aug. 1844.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

General Church Minutes, 1839–1877. CHL.

The date on which the new edition was first available to the public is unknown, but the volume was in use soon after its release: it was cited in the 2 September 1844 issue of Times and Seasons, and Parley P. Pratt quoted from it at a meeting on 8 September 1844.26

“Ten Virgins,” Times and Seasons, 2 Sept. 1844, 5:636; “Trial of Elder Rigdon,” Times and Seasons, 15 Sept. 1844, 5:647–655.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

Because the book had been stereotyped, keeping it in print was practical. A second printing of the book was authorized the following year and a third in 1846, presumably indicating a short supply of the books and a growing demand.27

The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Revelations of God, comp. Joseph Smith, 3rd ed. (Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1845); The Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; Carefully Selected from the Reve[l]ations of God, comp. Joseph Smith, 4th ed. (Nauvoo, IL: John Taylor, 1846).  

 
Besides the individuals identified above as having assisted with or overseen work on the publication, others may have contributed as compilers, editors, typesetters, or printers. A number of people worked in the Nauvoo printing office at the time the volume was being produced, but records do not identify which of them had a hand in this project.
The 1844 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants is essentially a reprint of the 1835 edition, with the addition of eight new items. The second edition reprinted the seven “Lectures on Faith” and all 103 numbered sections included in the “Covenants and Commandments” part of the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants. The 1835 edition included two sections numbered 66 (here referred to as 66a and 66b). This mistake was corrected in the 1844 edition. As a result, sections 1 through 66a of the 1835 edition correspond with sections 1 through 66 of the 1844 edition, and sections 66b through 99 in the 1835 edition correspond with sections 67 through 100 in the 1844 edition. The final three sections of the 1835 edition, sections 100 through 102, were numbered as sections 108 through 110 in the 1844 edition.
The eight new items added to the 1844 edition became sections 101 through 107 and section 111. Sections 101 and 102—both revelations regarding the redemption of Zion—were available for use in the 1835 publication but were not printed therein. Sections 103 (which was printed without a section number), 104, and 107 are JS revelations dictated after 1835. Sections 105 and 106 are JS letters written in the 1840s. Section 111, a tribute to the slain JS and Hyrum Smith, is believed to have been written by John Taylor, the publisher of the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants and an eyewitness to the murders. It was composed after most of the work on the volume had been completed. Only by using a smaller typeface than what appears in the rest of the volume were the printers able to fit this last section into the available space following section 110 and preceding a brief three-page “index.” The editors of the 1844 edition used a variety of sources to set type for these eight items.28

Sources used by editors of the 1844 Doctrine and Covenants for the newly added items include Revelation Book 2, Times and Seasons, JS’s journal, and various loose manuscripts.
Comprehensive Works Cited

 

 

Revelation Book 2 / “Book of Revelations,” 1832–1834. Revelations Collection, 1831–ca. 1844, 1847, 1861, ca. 1876. CHL.

Times and Seasons. Commerce/Nauvoo, IL. Nov. 1839–Feb. 1846.

JSP, J1 / Jessee, Dean C., Mark Ashurst-McGee, and Richard L. Jensen, eds. Journals, Volume 1: 1832–1839. Vol. 1 of the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers, edited by Dean C. Jessee, Ronald K. Esplin, and Richard Lyman Bushman. Salt Lake City: Church Historian’s Press, 2008.

The sources used by the editors contained other revelations and letters that would have been candidates for publication in the Doctrine and Covenants, and the reasons for selecting the particular revelations and letters that were included are unknown.

Facts