31772

History, 1838–1856, volume A-1 [23 December 1805–30 August 1834]

are enlightened by the wisdom of heaven; shall we fear to do as much for Jesus, as he did for us. No; we will obey the voice of the Spirit, that God may overcome the world. I am a servant &c. William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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.

28 February–2 March 1834 • Friday–Sunday

We continued our journey and on the 28th. Feb staid at a strangers, who entertained us very kindly; and on the 1st of march arrived at brother Lewises; and on the 2d, which was the Sabbath, Brother Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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preached and I preached in the evening. We had a good meeting. There is a small church in this place, which seems strong in the faith. O may God keep them in the faith, and save them, and lead them to Zion.

3–6 March 1834 • Monday–Thursday

March 3d. we intended to start on our journey, East, but concluded to tarry another day. O may God bless us with the gift of utterance to accomplish the jouney and the errand on which we are sent, and return safe to the land of Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, and find my family all well. O Lord bless my little children with health and long life, to do good in their generation for Christ’s sake, Amen.
After leaving Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, we had passed through Thompson

Located about twenty miles northeast of Kirtland, Ohio. Settled 1800. Surveyed 1809. Incorporated 1817. Population in 1830 about 700. Population in 1840 about 1,000. Latter-day Saints from Colesville, New York, were directed to settle in area on 759 acres...

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, Springfield

Settled 1796. Incorporated 1800. Population in 1830 about 1,500. Population in 1840 about 2,300. Latter-day Saint missionaries passed through area when traveling between Ohio and New York. JS traveled through Springfield on missions, 1833 and 1834. Branch...

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, Elk creek

Settled 1797. Incorporated 1800. Population in 1830 about 560. Population in 1840 about 1,600. Situated on Elk Creek. Included Elk Creek post office. JS traveled through township during missions, 1833 and 1834. Branch of LDS church organized, 1833.

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, Erie, Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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, Lavanna Laona

Village with about 40 domiciles, 1836. Population in 1842 about 400.

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, Silver Creek

Located at mouth of Silver Creek (or Steer Creek) on Lake Erie, in northwest corner of Hanover Township. Incorporated as village, 1848.

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, Perrysburgh

Also spelled Perrysburgh. Located in northwestern New York state, about six miles southeast of Lake Erie. Created 1814; first known as Perry Township. Name changed to Perrysburg, 1818. Population in 1830 about 2,400. Branch of LDS church organized in township...

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, Collins, China, Warsaw

Area settled, 1803. Township formed, 19 Mar. 1808. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1840 about 2,800. Included Warsaw village; county seat, after 1841; population in 1840 about 400. Reynolds Cahoon and David W. Patten assigned to travel to area...

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, Geneseeo

Agricultural area twenty-five miles west of Canandaigua. Incorporated as village, 1832. Population in 1840 about 900. While recruiting for Camp of Israel, JS and Sidney Rigdon preached to large congregation at conference in village, 16 Mar. 1834. Geneseo ...

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, Centreville

Also spelled Centerville. First settled, 1808. Included Centreville post office and settlement. Population in 1830 about 1,200. Population in 1840 about 1,500.

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, Catlin, & Spafford

Area settled, 1794. Formed from Sempronius, Marcellus, and Tully townships, 1811. Population in 1830 about 2,600; in 1835 about 2,400; and in 1840 about 1,900. Included Spafford village. Size of township decreased when land was taken for other townships, ...

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before we arrived at Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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, on the fourth instant we continued our journey from Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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, accompanied by Elder

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

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John Gould,

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

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and after a ride of thirty three miles at Villanova

Also spelled Villenova. Located in southwest corner of state. Settled by 1810. Taken from Hanover Township, Jan. 1823. Population in 1830 about 1,100; in 1835 about 1,500; and in 1840 about 1,700. While recruiting Camp of Israel volunteers, JS and Parley ...

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, and tarried all night, with a Bro. Reuben Mc.Bride

16 June 1803–26 Feb. 1891. Farmer. Born at Chester, Washington Co., New York. Son of Daniel McBride and Abigail Mead. Married Mary Ann Anderson, 16 June 1833. Baptized into LDS church, 4 Mar. 1834, at Villanova, Chautauque Co., New York. Participated in Camp...

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. The next morning, March 5th. we went to Brother Freeman Nickerson

5 Feb. 1779–22 Jan. 1847. Seaman. Born at South Dennis, Barnstable Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eleazer Nickerson and Thankful Chase. Moved to Cavendish, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1800. Married Huldah Chapman, 19 Jan. 1801, at Cavendish. Served as officer in Vermont...

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s, and found him and his household full of faith and of the Holy Spirit.
We called the church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

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together, and related unto them what had happened to our brethren in Zion, and opened to them the prophecies and revelations concerning the order of the gathering to Zion, and the means of her redemption

The name of the spring 1834 military expedition from Kirtland, Ohio, to Clay County, Missouri. It later came to be known as “Zion’s Camp.” This relief expedition, appointed by revelation and led by JS, consisted of about two hundred armed but largely untrained...

View Glossary
; and I prophecied to them, and the Spirit of the Lord came mightily upon them, and with all readiness, the young and middleaged volunteered for Zion. [p. 445]
are enlightened by the spirit of wisdom of heaven; shall  we fear to do as much for Jesus, as he did for us.  No; we will obey the voice of the Spirit, that God may  overcome the world. I am a servant &c. W[illiam] W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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.

28 February–2 March 1834 • Friday–Sunday

We continued our journey and on the 28th. Feb staid at a strangers, who entertained us very kindly; and  on the 1st of march arrived at brother Lewises; and on  the 2d, which was the Sabbath, Brother Parley <P. Pratt>

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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preached and  I preached in the evening. We had a good meeting.  There was is a small church in this place, which seemed seems  strong in the faith. O may God keep them in the faith,  and save them, and lead them to Zion.

3–6 March 1834 • Monday–Thursday

March 3d. we intended to on start on our journey, East,  but concluded to tarry another day. O may God bless  us with the gift of utterance to accomplish the jouney  and the errand on which we are sent, and return  safe to the land of Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, and find my family  all well. O Lord bless my little children with health  and long life, to do good in their generation for  Christ’s sake, Amen.
After leaving Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, we had passed through  Thompson

Located about twenty miles northeast of Kirtland, Ohio. Settled 1800. Surveyed 1809. Incorporated 1817. Population in 1830 about 700. Population in 1840 about 1,000. Latter-day Saints from Colesville, New York, were directed to settle in area on 759 acres...

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, Springfield

Settled 1796. Incorporated 1800. Population in 1830 about 1,500. Population in 1840 about 2,300. Latter-day Saint missionaries passed through area when traveling between Ohio and New York. JS traveled through Springfield on missions, 1833 and 1834. Branch...

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, Elk creek

Settled 1797. Incorporated 1800. Population in 1830 about 560. Population in 1840 about 1,600. Situated on Elk Creek. Included Elk Creek post office. JS traveled through township during missions, 1833 and 1834. Branch of LDS church organized, 1833.

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, Erie, Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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,  Lavanna [Laona]

Village with about 40 domiciles, 1836. Population in 1842 about 400.

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, Silver Creek

Located at mouth of Silver Creek (or Steer Creek) on Lake Erie, in northwest corner of Hanover Township. Incorporated as village, 1848.

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, Perrysburgh

Also spelled Perrysburgh. Located in northwestern New York state, about six miles southeast of Lake Erie. Created 1814; first known as Perry Township. Name changed to Perrysburg, 1818. Population in 1830 about 2,400. Branch of LDS church organized in township...

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, Collins, China,  Warsaw

Area settled, 1803. Township formed, 19 Mar. 1808. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1840 about 2,800. Included Warsaw village; county seat, after 1841; population in 1840 about 400. Reynolds Cahoon and David W. Patten assigned to travel to area...

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, Geneaseeo <Geneseeo>

Agricultural area twenty-five miles west of Canandaigua. Incorporated as village, 1832. Population in 1840 about 900. While recruiting for Camp of Israel, JS and Sidney Rigdon preached to large congregation at conference in village, 16 Mar. 1834. Geneseo ...

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, Centreville

Also spelled Centerville. First settled, 1808. Included Centreville post office and settlement. Population in 1830 about 1,200. Population in 1840 about 1,500.

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, Catlin, <& Spafford

Area settled, 1794. Formed from Sempronius, Marcellus, and Tully townships, 1811. Population in 1830 about 2,600; in 1835 about 2,400; and in 1840 about 1,900. Included Spafford village. Size of township decreased when land was taken for other townships, ...

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> before we  arrived at Spafford

Area settled, 1794. Formed from Sempronius, Marcellus, and Tully townships, 1811. Population in 1830 about 2,600; in 1835 about 2,400; and in 1840 about 1,900. Included Spafford village. Size of township decreased when land was taken for other townships, ...

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<Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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>, on the fourth instant we  continued our journey from Westfield

Formed 1829. Population in 1830 about 2,500. Population in 1835 about 3,000. Included Westfield village; settled 1800; incorporated Apr. 1833. Westfield branch of LDS church had about seventy-five members, 1835. Latter-day Saint Job Lewis hosted conferences...

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, accompanied  by Elder

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
[John] Gould,

21 Dec. 1784–25 June 1855. Pastor, farmer. Born in New Hampshire. Married first Oliva Swanson of Massachusetts. Resided at Portsmouth, Rockingham Co., New Hampshire, 1808. Lived in Vermont. Moved to northern Pennsylvania, 1817. Served as minister in Freewill...

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and after a ride of thirty three miles  at Villanova

Also spelled Villenova. Located in southwest corner of state. Settled by 1810. Taken from Hanover Township, Jan. 1823. Population in 1830 about 1,100; in 1835 about 1,500; and in 1840 about 1,700. While recruiting Camp of Israel volunteers, JS and Parley ...

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, and tarried all night, with a Bro.  [Reuben] Mc.Bride

16 June 1803–26 Feb. 1891. Farmer. Born at Chester, Washington Co., New York. Son of Daniel McBride and Abigail Mead. Married Mary Ann Anderson, 16 June 1833. Baptized into LDS church, 4 Mar. 1834, at Villanova, Chautauque Co., New York. Participated in Camp...

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. The next morning, March 5th. we went to  Brother [Freeman] Nickerson

5 Feb. 1779–22 Jan. 1847. Seaman. Born at South Dennis, Barnstable Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eleazer Nickerson and Thankful Chase. Moved to Cavendish, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1800. Married Huldah Chapman, 19 Jan. 1801, at Cavendish. Served as officer in Vermont...

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s, and found him and his house hold full of faith and of the Holy Spirit.
We called the church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
together, and related  unto them what had happened to our brethren in  Zion, and opened to them the prophecies and  revelations concerning the order of the gathering to  Zion, and the means of her redemption

The name of the spring 1834 military expedition from Kirtland, Ohio, to Clay County, Missouri. It later came to be known as “Zion’s Camp.” This relief expedition, appointed by revelation and led by JS, consisted of about two hundred armed but largely untrained...

View Glossary
; and  I prophecied to them, and the Spirit of the Lord  came mightily upon them, and with all readiness, the  young and middleaged volunteered for Zion. [p. 445]
PreviousNext
This document, volume A-1, is the first of the six volumes of the “Manuscript History of the Church.” The collection was compiled over the span of seventeen years, 1838 to 1856. Volume A-1 encompasses the period from JS’s birth in 1805 to 30 August 1834, just after the return of the Camp of Israel (later known as Zion’s Camp) from Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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to Kirtland

Located in Newel K. Whitney store in northwest Kirtland on northeast corner of Chardon and Chillicothe roads. Whitney appointed postmaster, 29 Dec. 1826. JS and others listed “Kirtland Mills, Geauga County, Ohio” as return address for letters mailed, 1833...

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, Ohio. For a fuller discussion of the entire six-volume work, see the general introduction to the history.
In April 1838 JS renewed his effort to draft a “history” with the aid of his counselor Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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. George W. Robinson

14 May 1814–10 Feb. 1878. Clerk, postmaster, merchant, clothier, banker. Born at Pawlet, Rutland Co., Vermont. Baptized into LDS church and moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, by 1836. Clerk and recorder for Kirtland high council, beginning Jan. 1836. Married...

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served as scribe. JS’s journal for late April and early May 1838 notes six days on which JS, Rigdon, and Robinson were engaged in “writing history.” Though not completed and no longer extant, that draft laid the foundation for what became a six-volume manuscript eventually published as the “History of Joseph Smith,” and at least a portion of its contents are assumed to have been included in the manuscript presented here.
On 11 June 1839 in Commerce

Located near middle of western boundary of state, bordering Mississippi River. European Americans settled area, 1820s. From bank of river, several feet above high-water mark, ground described as nearly level for six or seven blocks before gradually sloping...

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, Illinois, JS once again began dictating his “history.” James Mulholland

1804–3 Nov. 1839. Born in Ireland. Baptized into LDS church. Married Sarah Scott, 8 Feb. 1838, at Far West, Caldwell Co., Missouri. Engaged in clerical work for JS, 1838, at Far West. Ordained a seventy, 28 Dec. 1838. After expulsion from Missouri, lived ...

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now served as scribe. Apparently the narrative commenced where the earlier 1838 draft left off. When work was interrupted in July 1839, Mulholland inscribed the draft material, including at least some of Robinson

14 May 1814–10 Feb. 1878. Clerk, postmaster, merchant, clothier, banker. Born at Pawlet, Rutland Co., Vermont. Baptized into LDS church and moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, by 1836. Clerk and recorder for Kirtland high council, beginning Jan. 1836. Married...

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’s earlier material, into a large record book already containing the text of an incomplete history previously produced over a span of two years, 1834–1836. For the new history, Mulholland simply turned the ledger over and began at the back of the book. The volume was later labeled A-1 on its spine, identifying it as the first of multiple volumes of the manuscript history.
Prior to his untimely death on 3 November 1839, Mulholland

1804–3 Nov. 1839. Born in Ireland. Baptized into LDS church. Married Sarah Scott, 8 Feb. 1838, at Far West, Caldwell Co., Missouri. Engaged in clerical work for JS, 1838, at Far West. Ordained a seventy, 28 Dec. 1838. After expulsion from Missouri, lived ...

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recorded the first fifty-nine pages in the volume. Subsequently, his successor, Robert B. Thompson

1 Oct. 1811–27 Aug. 1841. Clerk, editor. Born in Great Driffield, Yorkshire, England. Member of Methodist church. Immigrated to Upper Canada, 1834. Baptized into LDS church by Parley P. Pratt, May 1836, in Upper Canada. Ordained an elder by John Taylor, 22...

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, contributed about sixteen more pages before his death in August 1841. William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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then added a little over seventy-five pages. However, it was not until Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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was appointed JS’s “private secretary and historian” that substantial progress was made on the compilation of the history. Richards would contribute the remainder of the text inscribed in the 553-page first volume. The narrative recorded in A-1 was completed in August 1843. Thomas Bullock and Charles Wandell subsequently added sixteen pages of “Addenda” material, which provided notes, extensive revisions, or additional text to be inserted in the original manuscript where indicated. For instance, several of the addenda expanded on the account of the Camp of Israel as initially recorded.
JS dictated or supplied information for much of A-1, and he personally corrected the first forty-two pages before his death. As planned, his historian-scribes maintained the first-person, chronological narrative format initially established in the volume. When various third-person accounts were drawn upon, they were generally converted to the first person, as if JS was directly relating the account. After JS’s death, Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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, Heber C. Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

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, George A. Smith

26 June 1817–1 Sept. 1875. Born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York. Son of John Smith and Clarissa Lyman. Baptized into LDS church by Joseph H. Wakefield, 10 Sept. 1832, at Potsdam. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1833. Labored on Kirtland temple...

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, and others modified and corrected the manuscript as they reviewed material before its eventual publication.
Beginning in March 1842 the church’s Nauvoo periodical, the Times and Seasons, began publishing the narrative as the “History of Joseph Smith.” At the time of JS’s death only the history through December 1831 had been published. When the final issue of the Times and Seasons, dated 15 February 1846 appeared, the account had been carried forward through August 1834—the end of the material recorded in A-1. The “History of Joseph Smith” was also published in England in the church periodical the Millennial Star beginning in June 1842. Once a press was established in Utah and the Deseret News began publication, the “History of Joseph Smith” once more appeared in print in serialized form. Beginning with the November 1851 issue, the narrative picked up where the Times and Seasons had left off over five years earlier.
Aside from the material dictated or supplied by JS prior to his murder, the texts for A-1 and for the history’s subsequent volumes were drawn from a variety of primary and secondary sources including JS’s diaries and letters, minutes of meetings, the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants, church and other periodicals, reports of JS’s discourses, and the reminiscences and recollections of church members. The narrative in A-1 provides JS’s personal account of the foundational events of his life as a prophet and the early progress of the church. It also encompasses contentions and disputations that erupted between the Latter-day Saints and their neighbors in New York

Located in northeast region of U.S. Area settled by Dutch traders, 1620s; later governed by Britain, 1664–1776. Admitted to U.S. as state, 1788. Population in 1810 about 1,000,000; in 1820 about 1,400,000; in 1830 about 1,900,000; and in 1840 about 2,400,...

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, Pennsylvania

Area first settled by Swedish immigrants, 1628. William Penn received grant for territory from King Charles II, 1681, and established British settlement, 1682. Philadelphia was center of government for original thirteen U.S. colonies from time of Revolutionary...

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, Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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, and Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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. While it remains difficult to distinguish JS’s own contributions from composition of his historian-scribes, the narrative trenchantly captures the poignancy and intensity of his life while offering an enlightening account of the birth of the church he labored to establish.

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