27467

Journal, 1835–1836

20 January 1836 • Wednesday

Wednesday morning 20th attended school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

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at the usual hour,264

The Hebrew School met at nine o’clock in the morning, Monday through Saturday. (See JS, Journal, 14 Jan. 1836; and stricken material at end of JS, Journal, 18 Jan. 1836.)  


and spent the day in reading and lecturing, and made some advancement in our studies,—
At evening I attended at John Johnson

14 Apr. 1779–30 July 1843. Farmer, innkeeper. Born at Chesterfield, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire. Son of Israel Johnson and Abigail Higgins. Married Alice (Elsa) Jacobs, 22 June 1800. Moved to Pomfret, Windsor Co., Vermont, ca. 1803. Settled at Hiram, Portage...

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s with my family, on a matrimonial occasion, having been invited to do so, to join President John F. Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

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and Miss Susan Lowell

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

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in marriage, a large and respectable company assembled, and were seated by Eldr’s O. Hyded Orson Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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& Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

View Full Bio
in the following order— The presidency

An organized body of leaders over priesthood quorums and other ecclesiastical organizations. A November 1831 revelation first described the office of president over the high priesthood and the church as a whole. By 1832, JS and two counselors constituted ...

View Glossary
and their companions in the first seats the twelve apostles

Members of a governing body in the church, with special administrative and proselytizing responsibilities. A June 1829 revelation commanded Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to call twelve disciples, similar to the twelve apostles in the New Testament and ...

View Glossary
in the second the 70

A priesthood office with the responsibility to travel and preach and assist the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, similar to the seventy in the New Testament. In February and March 1835, the first members of the Seventy were selected and ordained. All of those...

View Glossary
, in the third, and the remainder of the congregation seated with their companions
after the above arangments were made Eldr. Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

View Full Bio
& his Lady

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

View Full Bio
with their attendants, came in and were seated in front of the presidency,— a hymn was sung, after which I adressed a throne of grace,— I then arose and read aloud a licence

A document certifying an individual’s office in the church and authorizing him “to perform the duty of his calling.” The “Articles and Covenants” of the church implied that only elders could issue licenses; individuals ordained by a priest to an office in...

View Glossary
granting any minister of the gospel the priviledge of solemnizing the rights of matrimony,265

The wording of the standard marriage license issued in Geauga County at this time did not suggest that a minister could perform a marriage without a license from a court of common pleas. Most likely, JS, who did not have such a license, was reading instead from section 2 of the 1824 Ohio “Act Regulating Marriages,” which, in part, authorized “the several religious societies, agreeably to the rules and regulations of their respective churches, to join together as husband and wife, all persons not prohibited by this act.” (An Act Regulating Marriages [6 Jan. 1824], Statutes of Ohio, vol. 2, p. 1407, sec. 2; Bradshaw, “Joseph Smith’s Performance of Marriages in Ohio,” 28, 34–37, 57.)  


and after calling for objection if any there were, against the anticipated alliance between Eldr. Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

View Full Bio
& Miss Lowell

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

View Full Bio
and waiting sufficient time, I observed that all forever after this must hold their peace—
I then envited them to join hands and I pronounced the ceremony according to the rules and regulations of the church of the Latter-day-Saints

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
,266

A reference to the church article on marriage. (“Marriage,” ca. Aug. 1835, in Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1835 ed.)  


in the name of [p. 132]

20 January 1836 • Wednesday

Wednesday morning 20th attended  school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

View Glossary
at the us[u]al hour,264

The Hebrew School met at nine o’clock in the morning, Monday through Saturday. (See JS, Journal, 14 Jan. 1836; and stricken material at end of JS, Journal, 18 Jan. 1836.)  


and spent the  day in reading and lecturing, and made  some advancement in our studies,—
At evening I attended at John Johnson

14 Apr. 1779–30 July 1843. Farmer, innkeeper. Born at Chesterfield, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire. Son of Israel Johnson and Abigail Higgins. Married Alice (Elsa) Jacobs, 22 June 1800. Moved to Pomfret, Windsor Co., Vermont, ca. 1803. Settled at Hiram, Portage...

View Full Bio
s  with my family, on a matrimonial occa sion, having been invited to do so, and  to join President John F. Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

View Full Bio
and  Miss Susan Lowell

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

View Full Bio
in marriage, a large  and respectable company assembled, and  were seated by Eldr’s O. Hyded [Orson Hyde]

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
& W[arren] Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

View Full Bio
 in the following order— The presidency

An organized body of leaders over priesthood quorums and other ecclesiastical organizations. A November 1831 revelation first described the office of president over the high priesthood and the church as a whole. By 1832, JS and two counselors constituted ...

View Glossary
 and their companions in their first seats  the twelve apostles

Members of a governing body in the church, with special administrative and proselytizing responsibilities. A June 1829 revelation commanded Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to call twelve disciples, similar to the twelve apostles in the New Testament and ...

View Glossary
in the second the 70

A priesthood office with the responsibility to travel and preach and assist the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, similar to the seventy in the New Testament. In February and March 1835, the first members of the Seventy were selected and ordained. All of those...

View Glossary
, in  the third, and the remainder of the congre gation seated with their companions
after the above arangments were made  Eldr. Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

View Full Bio
& his Lady

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

View Full Bio
with their atte ndants, came in and were seated in  front of the presidency,— a hymn was  sung, after which I adressed a throne  of grace,— I then arose and read aloud  the <a> licence

A document certifying an individual’s office in the church and authorizing him “to perform the duty of his calling.” The “Articles and Covenants” of the church implied that only elders could issue licenses; individuals ordained by a priest to an office in...

View Glossary
granting any minister of the  gospel the priviledge of solemnizing the  rights of matrimony,265

The wording of the standard marriage license issued in Geauga County at this time did not suggest that a minister could perform a marriage without a license from a court of common pleas. Most likely, JS, who did not have such a license, was reading instead from section 2 of the 1824 Ohio “Act Regulating Marriages,” which, in part, authorized “the several religious societies, agreeably to the rules and regulations of their respective churches, to join together as husband and wife, all persons not prohibited by this act.” (An Act Regulating Marriages [6 Jan. 1824], Statutes of Ohio, vol. 2, p. 1407, sec. 2; Bradshaw, “Joseph Smith’s Performance of Marriages in Ohio,” 28, 34–37, 57.)  


and after calling  for objection if any there were, against  the anticipated alliance between Eldr.  Boynton

20 Sept. 1811–20 Oct. 1890. Merchant, lecturer, scientist, inventor. Born at East Bradford (later Groveland), Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Eliphalet Boynton and Susanna Nichols. Baptized into LDS church by JS, Sept. 1832, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio...

View Full Bio
& Miss Lowell

20 Aug. 1816–7 Aug. 1859. Born at Buxton, Cumberland Co., Maine. Daughter of Samuel Lowell and Sarah Hayes. Baptized into LDS church, 6 Oct. 1833, at Buxton. Married to John F. Boynton by JS, 20 Jan. 1836, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Lived at Syracuse,...

View Full Bio
to and waiting  sufficient time, I observed that all forever  after this must hold their peace—
I then envited them to join hands  and I pronounced the ceremony according  to the rules and regulations of the church  of the Latter-day-Saints

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
,266

A reference to the church article on marriage. (“Marriage,” ca. Aug. 1835, in Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1835 ed.)  


and <in> the name of [p. 132]
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JS, “Sketch Book for the use of Joseph Smith, jr.,” Journal, Sept. 1835–Apr. 1836; handwriting of Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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, an unidentified scribe, Sylvester Smith

25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...

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, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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, Warren Cowdery

17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...

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, JS, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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; 195 pages; JS Collection, CHL. Includes redactions and archival marking.
The text block consists of 114 leaves—including single flyleaves and pastedowns in the front and back—measuring 12¼ x 8 inches (31 x 20 cm). The 110 interior leaves are ledger paper with thirty-four lines in faint—and now faded—black ink that has turned brown. There are nine gatherings of various sizes—each about a dozen leaves per gathering. The text block is sewn all along over cloth tapes. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a brown calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in shell marbled paper, with dark green body and veins of light green. The bound volume measures 12⅜ x 8¼ inches (31 x 21 cm) and is 13/16 inches (2 cm) thick. One cover of the book is labeled “Repentence.” in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains eight lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to Repentince”. The spine has “No 8” inscribed upside up when the book is standing upright for this side. When the volume is turned upside down and flipped front to back, the other cover is titled “Sabbath Day” with “No 9” written beneath in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains two lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to the Sabbath day”. Thus the book was used to simultaneously house two volumes of topical notes on biblical passages. This book was apparently part of a larger series that included at least two other extant volumes—one bearing “Faith” and “10” on the cover, and the other bearing “Second Comeing of Christ” and “No 3” on one cover and “Gift of the Holy Ghost” on the other cover.1

“Grammar & Aphabet of the Egyptian Language,” Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record”.  


In late 1835, JS and scribes began using the book to record his journal for 1835–1836, which begins on the recto of the second leaf of ledger paper. Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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added the title “Sketch Book” to the cover, beneath “Repentence.”.
The entire journal is inscribed in black ink that later turned brown. Pages 25, 51, 77, 103, 129, and 154 bear the marks of adhesive wafers that were probably used to attach manuscripts until they were copied into the journal. The journal was used in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, Illinois, in 1843 as a major source in composing JS’s multivolume manuscript history of the church. At this time, redactions were made in ink and in graphite pencil, and use marks were made in graphite. Also, apparently in Nauvoo, the cover of the journal side of the book was marked with a “D” and then with a larger, stylized “D”. At some point a white paper spine label was added with “1835–6 <Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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> JOURNAL” hand printed or stenciled in black ink that later turned brown. The insertion “Kirtland” is written in graphite. Also, in the “Repentence” side of the volume, the rectos of the third through eighth leaves of ledger paper are numbered on the upper right-hand corners as 195, 197, 199, 201, 203, and 205—all written in graphite and apparently redactions. Except with regard to the title “Sketch Book”, none of the authors of the inscriptions mentioned previously have been identified. This volume is listed in Nauvoo and early Utah inventories of church records, indicating continuous custody.2

Historian’s Office, “Schedule of Church Records”; “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” [1], Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.  


Facts