27467

Journal, 1835–1836

his first prayer an angel entered the window and took his seated between father Smith

12 July 1771–14 Sept. 1840. Cooper, farmer, teacher, merchant. Born at Topsfield, Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Nominal member of Congregationalist church at Topsfield. Married to Lucy Mack by Seth Austin, 24 Jan. 1796, at Tunbridge...

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, and himself, and remained their during his prayer383

Stephen Post recorded Williams stating that the angel came through the window behind the pulpit. Edward Partridge recorded that “Williams saw an angel” but interlinearly inserted “or rather the Savior”—possibly conflating Williams’s vision of an angel with the vision of Jesus Christ shared by JS and Oliver Cowdery a week later. Years later, Truman Angell recalled that JS identified this angel as the apostle Peter. (Post, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836; Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281; Partridge, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836; Angell, Autobiography, 16.)  


Presdt David Whitmer

7 Jan. 1805–25 Jan. 1888. Farmer, livery keeper. Born near Harrisburg, Dauphin Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Raised Presbyterian. Moved to Ontario Co., New York, shortly after birth. Attended German Reformed Church. Arranged...

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also saw angels in the house

The official name for the sacred edifice in Kirtland, Ohio, later known as the Kirtland temple; also the official name for other planned religious structures in Missouri. JS and the Latter-day Saints also referred to the House of the Lord in Kirtland as “...

View Glossary
384

Years later, George A. Smith recalled that David Whitmer said he saw three angels during the meeting that was held on the evening of this day. (George A. Smith, in Journal of Discourses, 15 Nov. 1864, 11:10.)  


We then sealed

To confirm or solemnize. In the early 1830s, revelations often adopted biblical usage of the term seal; for example, “sealed up the testimony” referred to proselytizing and testifying of the gospel as a warning of the approaching end time. JS explained in...

View Glossary
the proceedings of the day by shouting hosanah

An exclamation of praise or an appeal for deliverance used in traditional Jewish and Christian worship. JS revelations instructed the Saints to shout hosanna in praising God. In early 1836, official members shouted hosanna to seal the ordinances and rituals...

View Glossary
to God and the Lamb 3 times sealing it each time with Amen, Amen, and Amen 385

Following the Hosanna Shout, Brigham Young and David W. Patten spoke and sang in tongues, after which JS “blessed the congregation in the name of the Lord.” (Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281; Post, Journal, 28 Mar. 1836.)  


and after requesting all the official members

Common term for church members who were also officials; men who held priesthood offices.

View Glossary
to meet again in the evening we retired—386

Oliver Cowdery’s minutes record that the meeting ended “a little past four P. M.,” seven hours after it began. (Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281.)  


met in the evening and instructed the quorums

An organized group of individuals holding the same office in the Melchizedek priesthood or the Aaronic priesthood. According to the 1835 “Instruction on Priesthood,” the presidency of the church constituted a quorum. The Twelve Apostles also formed a quorum...

View Glossary
respecting the ordinance

A religious rite. JS taught that ordinances were covenants between man and God, in which believers could affirm faith, gain spiritual knowledge, and seek blessings. Some ordinances were considered requisite for salvation. The manner in which ordinances were...

View Glossary
of washing of feet

An ordinance following the pattern set by Jesus in the New Testament, symbolizing unity and bestowing purification and spiritual power. At the first meeting of the School of the Prophets in January 1833, JS washed the feet of the elders present and pronounced...

View Glossary

29 Mar. 1836

JS administered and received ritual washing of feet with priesthood leaders in temple, Kirtland, Ohio.

which we were to attend to on wednesday following387

Benjamin Brown wrote that when JS opened this meeting, he declared that “the day of Penticost was continued.” Stephen Post recorded that JS expounded on “the order of dedicating a house to God” from the account of Solomon’s temple dedication in 2 Chronicles 6 and gave instruction “relative to our preaching & to our endowment.” Post also recorded that “Angels of God came into the room, cloven tongues rested upon some of the Servants of the Lord like unto fire, & they spake with tongues & prophesied.” Oliver Cowdery recorded, “The Spirit was poured out—I saw the glory of God, like a great cloud, come down and rest upon the house, and fill the same like a mighty rushing wind. I also saw cloven tongues, like as of fire rest upon many, (for there were 316 present,) while they spake with other tongues and prophesied.” (Benjamin Brown, Kirtland, OH, to Sarah M. Brown, Mar. 1836, Benjamin Brown Family Collection, CHL; Post, Journal, 27 and 28 Mar. 1836; Cowdery, Diary, 27 Mar. 1836; see also Partridge, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836.)  


28 March 1836 • Monday

Monday the 28. March 1836 Attended school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

View Glossary
— nothing worthy of note transpired

29 March 1836 • Tuesday

Tuesday the 29th Attended school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

View Glossary
, which was the last day of our course of lectures in Hebrew

26 Jan. 1836

First day of formal instruction of Hebrew School, Kirtland, Ohio.

by Proffessor Joshua Seixas

4 June 1802–1874. Hebraist, textbook writer, teacher. Probably born at New York City. Son of Gershom Mendez Seixas and Hannah Manuel. Married Henrietta Raphael of Richmond, Henrico Co., Virginia. Taught Hebrew at New York and Charlestown, Massachusetts. His...

View Full Bio
,—388

This concluded the eight weeks and two days of instruction received by JS and other Latter-day Saints. The following day Seixas signed a certificate that recorded JS’s completion of the course and encouraged him to continue his studies. In the years to come, JS occasionally studied Hebrew and used his knowledge of the language in sermons and writings. (Certificate, J. Seixas to JS, Kirtland, OH, 30 Mar. 1836, JS Collection, CHL; Ogden, “Kirtland Hebrew School,” 163–166; see also Zucker, “Joseph Smith as a Student of Hebrew”; and Walton, “Professor Seixas.”)  


At 11 oclock A. M. Presidents Joseph Smith jun Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

View Full Bio
, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
met in the most holy place in the Lords house

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
389

Probably the veil-enclosed pulpits on the west side of the lower court, which were separately consecrated before the general dedication two days earlier. (See JS, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836.)  


and sought for a revelation from Him, to teach us concerning our going to Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

View Glossary
, and other im [p. 185]
his first prayer an angel entered the window  and <took his> seated himself between father Smith

12 July 1771–14 Sept. 1840. Cooper, farmer, teacher, merchant. Born at Topsfield, Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Nominal member of Congregationalist church at Topsfield. Married to Lucy Mack by Seth Austin, 24 Jan. 1796, at Tunbridge...

View Full Bio
, and  himself, and remained their during his prayer383

Stephen Post recorded Williams stating that the angel came through the window behind the pulpit. Edward Partridge recorded that “Williams saw an angel” but interlinearly inserted “or rather the Savior”—possibly conflating Williams’s vision of an angel with the vision of Jesus Christ shared by JS and Oliver Cowdery a week later. Years later, Truman Angell recalled that JS identified this angel as the apostle Peter. (Post, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836; Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281; Partridge, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836; Angell, Autobiography, 16.)  


 Presdt David Whitmer

7 Jan. 1805–25 Jan. 1888. Farmer, livery keeper. Born near Harrisburg, Dauphin Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Raised Presbyterian. Moved to Ontario Co., New York, shortly after birth. Attended German Reformed Church. Arranged...

View Full Bio
also saw angels in the house

The official name for the sacred edifice in Kirtland, Ohio, later known as the Kirtland temple; also the official name for other planned religious structures in Missouri. JS and the Latter-day Saints also referred to the House of the Lord in Kirtland as “...

View Glossary
384

Years later, George A. Smith recalled that David Whitmer said he saw three angels during the meeting that was held on the evening of this day. (George A. Smith, in Journal of Discourses, 15 Nov. 1864, 11:10.)  


We then sealed

To confirm or solemnize. In the early 1830s, revelations often adopted biblical usage of the term seal; for example, “sealed up the testimony” referred to proselytizing and testifying of the gospel as a warning of the approaching end time. JS explained in...

View Glossary
the proceedings of the day by a  shouting hosanah

An exclamation of praise or an appeal for deliverance used in traditional Jewish and Christian worship. JS revelations instructed the Saints to shout hosanna in praising God. In early 1836, official members shouted hosanna to seal the ordinances and rituals...

View Glossary
to God and the Lamb 3 times  sealing it each time with Amen, Amen, and Amen 385

Following the Hosanna Shout, Brigham Young and David W. Patten spoke and sang in tongues, after which JS “blessed the congregation in the name of the Lord.” (Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281; Post, Journal, 28 Mar. 1836.)  


 and after requesting all the official members

Common term for church members who were also officials; men who held priesthood offices.

View Glossary
to  meet again in the evening we retired—386

Oliver Cowdery’s minutes record that the meeting ended “a little past four P. M.,” seven hours after it began. (Minutes, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Mar. 1836, 2:281.)  


met in the evening and instructed the quorums

An organized group of individuals holding the same office in the Melchizedek priesthood or the Aaronic priesthood. According to the 1835 “Instruction on Priesthood,” the presidency of the church constituted a quorum. The Twelve Apostles also formed a quorum...

View Glossary
 respecting the ordinance

A religious rite. JS taught that ordinances were covenants between man and God, in which believers could affirm faith, gain spiritual knowledge, and seek blessings. Some ordinances were considered requisite for salvation. The manner in which ordinances were...

View Glossary
of washing of feet

An ordinance following the pattern set by Jesus in the New Testament, symbolizing unity and bestowing purification and spiritual power. At the first meeting of the School of the Prophets in January 1833, JS washed the feet of the elders present and pronounced...

View Glossary

29 Mar. 1836

JS administered and received ritual washing of feet with priesthood leaders in temple, Kirtland, Ohio.

which  we were to attend to on wednesday following387

Benjamin Brown wrote that when JS opened this meeting, he declared that “the day of Penticost was continued.” Stephen Post recorded that JS expounded on “the order of dedicating a house to God” from the account of Solomon’s temple dedication in 2 Chronicles 6 and gave instruction “relative to our preaching & to our endowment.” Post also recorded that “Angels of God came into the room, cloven tongues rested upon some of the Servants of the Lord like unto fire, & they spake with tongues & prophesied.” Oliver Cowdery recorded, “The Spirit was poured out—I saw the glory of God, like a great cloud, come down and rest upon the house, and fill the same like a mighty rushing wind. I also saw cloven tongues, like as of fire rest upon many, (for there were 316 present,) while they spake with other tongues and prophesied.” (Benjamin Brown, Kirtland, OH, to Sarah M. Brown, Mar. 1836, Benjamin Brown Family Collection, CHL; Post, Journal, 27 and 28 Mar. 1836; Cowdery, Diary, 27 Mar. 1836; see also Partridge, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836.)  


28 March 1836 • Monday

Monday the 28. M[ar]ch 1836  Attended school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

View Glossary
— nothing worthy of note tra nspired

29 March 1836 • Tuesday

Tuesday the 29th  Attended school

An educational program established in Kirtland, Ohio, in 1836 for the study of the Hebrew language. On 4 January 1836, JS organized the school and served as its temporary instructor for three weeks. A committee composed of JS, Sidney Rigdon, Frederick G. ...

View Glossary
, which  was the last day of our course of lectures in  Hebrew

26 Jan. 1836

First day of formal instruction of Hebrew School, Kirtland, Ohio.

by Proffessor [Joshua] Seixas

4 June 1802–1874. Hebraist, textbook writer, teacher. Probably born at New York City. Son of Gershom Mendez Seixas and Hannah Manuel. Married Henrietta Raphael of Richmond, Henrico Co., Virginia. Taught Hebrew at New York and Charlestown, Massachusetts. His...

View Full Bio
,—388

This concluded the eight weeks and two days of instruction received by JS and other Latter-day Saints. The following day Seixas signed a certificate that recorded JS’s completion of the course and encouraged him to continue his studies. In the years to come, JS occasionally studied Hebrew and used his knowledge of the language in sermons and writings. (Certificate, J. Seixas to JS, Kirtland, OH, 30 Mar. 1836, JS Collection, CHL; Ogden, “Kirtland Hebrew School,” 163–166; see also Zucker, “Joseph Smith as a Student of Hebrew”; and Walton, “Professor Seixas.”)  


After we dismissed  made some arangements for our meeting  on the morrow; attended to my domestick  concirns, nothing very special transpired
At evening I met with the presidency

An organized body of leaders over priesthood quorums and other ecclesiastical organizations. A November 1831 revelation first described the office of president over the high priesthood and the church as a whole. By 1832, JS and two counselors constituted ...

View Glossary
 in the Temple of the Lord

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
and the Lord  commanded us to tarry and santify ourselves  by washing our feet

An ordinance following the pattern set by Jesus in the New Testament, symbolizing unity and bestowing purification and spiritual power. At the first meeting of the School of the Prophets in January 1833, JS washed the feet of the elders present and pronounced...

View Glossary
At 11 oclock A. M. Presidents  Joseph Smith jun Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, Sidney  Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

View Full Bio
, Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

View Full Bio
, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
met  in the most holy place in the Lords house

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
389

Probably the veil-enclosed pulpits on the west side of the lower court, which were separately consecrated before the general dedication two days earlier. (See JS, Journal, 27 Mar. 1836.)  


 and sought for a revelation from Him, to teach  us concerning our going to Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

View Glossary
, and other im [p. 185]
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JS, “Sketch Book for the use of Joseph Smith, jr.,” Journal, Sept. 1835–Apr. 1836; handwriting of Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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, an unidentified scribe, Sylvester Smith

25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...

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, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, Warren Cowdery

17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...

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, JS, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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; 195 pages; JS Collection, CHL. Includes redactions and archival marking.
The text block consists of 114 leaves—including single flyleaves and pastedowns in the front and back—measuring 12¼ x 8 inches (31 x 20 cm). The 110 interior leaves are ledger paper with thirty-four lines in faint—and now faded—black ink that has turned brown. There are nine gatherings of various sizes—each about a dozen leaves per gathering. The text block is sewn all along over cloth tapes. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a brown calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in shell marbled paper, with dark green body and veins of light green. The bound volume measures 12⅜ x 8¼ inches (31 x 21 cm) and is 13/16 inches (2 cm) thick. One cover of the book is labeled “Repentence.” in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains eight lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to Repentince”. The spine has “No 8” inscribed upside up when the book is standing upright for this side. When the volume is turned upside down and flipped front to back, the other cover is titled “Sabbath Day” with “No 9” written beneath in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains two lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to the Sabbath day”. Thus the book was used to simultaneously house two volumes of topical notes on biblical passages. This book was apparently part of a larger series that included at least two other extant volumes—one bearing “Faith” and “10” on the cover, and the other bearing “Second Comeing of Christ” and “No 3” on one cover and “Gift of the Holy Ghost” on the other cover.1

“Grammar & Aphabet of the Egyptian Language,” Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record”.  


In late 1835, JS and scribes began using the book to record his journal for 1835–1836, which begins on the recto of the second leaf of ledger paper. Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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added the title “Sketch Book” to the cover, beneath “Repentence.”.
The entire journal is inscribed in black ink that later turned brown. Pages 25, 51, 77, 103, 129, and 154 bear the marks of adhesive wafers that were probably used to attach manuscripts until they were copied into the journal. The journal was used in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, Illinois, in 1843 as a major source in composing JS’s multivolume manuscript history of the church. At this time, redactions were made in ink and in graphite pencil, and use marks were made in graphite. Also, apparently in Nauvoo, the cover of the journal side of the book was marked with a “D” and then with a larger, stylized “D”. At some point a white paper spine label was added with “1835–6 <Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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> JOURNAL” hand printed or stenciled in black ink that later turned brown. The insertion “Kirtland” is written in graphite. Also, in the “Repentence” side of the volume, the rectos of the third through eighth leaves of ledger paper are numbered on the upper right-hand corners as 195, 197, 199, 201, 203, and 205—all written in graphite and apparently redactions. Except with regard to the title “Sketch Book”, none of the authors of the inscriptions mentioned previously have been identified. This volume is listed in Nauvoo and early Utah inventories of church records, indicating continuous custody.2

Historian’s Office, “Schedule of Church Records”; “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” [1], Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.  


Facts