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Journal, 1835–1836

25 September 1835 • Friday

Friday 25th September. This day I remained at home: nothing of note transpired.

26 September 1835 • Saturday

26th. This evening, the twelve

Members of a governing body in the church, with special administrative and proselytizing responsibilities. A June 1829 revelation commanded Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to call twelve disciples, similar to the twelve apostles in the New Testament and ...

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having returned

4 May. 1835

Twelve Apostles departed Kirtland, Ohio, on journey to northeastern states and Upper Canada to supervise outlying branches of church.

from the east this morning, we met them, and conversed upon some matters of difficulty which ware existing between some of them, and president [Sidney] Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, and all things were settled satisfactorily.

27 September 1835 • Sunday

27th Sunday. Attended meeting: brethren, Thomas B. Marsh

1 Nov. 1800–Jan. 1866. Farmer, hotel worker, waiter, horse groom, grocer, type foundry worker, teacher. Born at Acton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of James Marsh and Molly Law. Married first Elizabeth Godkin, 1 Nov. 1820, at New York City. Moved to ...

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, David W. Patten

14 Nov. 1799–25 Oct. 1838. Farmer. Born in Vermont. Son of Benoni Patten and Edith Cole. Moved to Theresa, Oneida Co., New York, as a young child. Moved to Dundee, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, as a youth. Married Phoebe Ann Babcock, 1828, in Dundee. Affiliated...

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, Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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and Heber C. Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

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preached and broke bread

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

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. The Lord poured out his Spirit, and my soul was edified.

28 September 1835 • Monday

28th. High council

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

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met and tried brother Gladden Bishop

19 June 1809–30 Nov. 1864. Watchmaker, minister. Born at Livonia, Ontario Co., New York. Son of Isaac Gates Bishop and Mary Hyde. Served as minister in Freewill Baptist Church, by 1831. Baptized into LDS church and ordained an elder, 2 July 1832, in Olean...

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: he was reproved, repented, and was reordained

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

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. The next was Lorenzo L. Lewis

Ca. 1809–ca. May 1897. Millwright. Born in New York. Son of Job L. Lewis and Margaret Lowers. Baptized into LDS church, probably at Westfield, Chautauque Co., New York. Ordained an elder, 13 May 1835, in Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Appointed to serve mission...

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for fornication: he was cut off from the Church.

29 September 1835 • Tuesday

29th High Council

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

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met to-day and tried brother Allen Avery: he was acquited from any charge. Also Brother Phineas H. Young

16 Feb. 1799–10 Oct. 1879. Printer, saddler, farmer. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Moved to Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont, ca. 1801. Moved to New York. Married first Clarissa Hamilton, 28 Sept...

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, who was also acquited: also bro. Lorenzo Young

19 Oct. 1807–21 Nov. 1895. Farmer, plasterer, gardener, blacksmith, nurseryman. Born at Smyrna, Chenango Co., New York. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Married Persis Goodall, 6 June 1826, at Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York. Baptized into LDS...

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, who confessed his error and was forgiven. In all these I acted on the part of the defence for the accused to plead for mercy. The Lord blessed my soul, and the council was greatly blessed, also. Much good will no doubt, result from our labors during the two days in which we were occupied on the business of the Church.

30 September 1835 • Wednesday

30th. Stayed at home and visited many who came to enquire after the work of the Lord.

1 October 1835 • Thursday

October 1, 1835. This after noon labored on the Egyptian alphabet

1 Sep. 1835

JS worked periodically on Book of Abraham translation, Kirtland, Ohio.

, in company with brsr Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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and William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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: The system of astronomy was unfolded.

2 October 1835 • Friday

2nd. To-day wrote a letter to be published in the Messenger and Advocate. [p. 3]

25 September 1835 • Friday

Oliver Cowdery handwriting begins.  


Friday 25th September.  This day I remained at home: nothing of  note transpired. The twelve all returned from the east to day.

26 September 1835 • Saturday

26th. This evening, the twelve

Members of a governing body in the church, with special administrative and proselytizing responsibilities. A June 1829 revelation commanded Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to call twelve disciples, similar to the twelve apostles in the New Testament and ...

View Glossary
having returned

4 May. 1835

Twelve Apostles departed Kirtland, Ohio, on journey to northeastern states and Upper Canada to supervise outlying branches of church.

from the  east this morning,9

On 12 March 1835, less than a month after it was organized, the Quorum of the Twelve was appointed to a mission to the eastern states to “hold conferences in the vicinity of the several branches of the Church for the purpose of regulating all things necessary for their welfare.” The Twelve left 4 May 1835. Six of the Twelve also crossed into Upper Canada and convened a conference at West Loughborough. (Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Record, 12 Mar. and 4 May 1835; see also Esplin, “Emergence of Brigham Young,” 163–170.)  


we met them, and conversed upon some  matters of difficulty which was <ware> existing between some of  them, and president [Sidney] Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, and all things were settled  satisfactorily.10

A month and a half earlier, on 4 August 1835, JS and the council of church presidents met to consider a charge that apostles William E. McLellin and Orson Hyde had, while on their mission, “express[ed] dissatisfaction with President Rigdon’s school.”a This was evidently the Kirtland School, a coeducational institution with a secular curriculum, at which McLellin had taught along with Rigdon before leaving Kirtland with the Quorum of Twelve on their mission to the eastern United States.b On the date of this entry, McLellin and Hyde “frankly confessed and were forgiven” by the council. The presidencies also considered the “derogatory” reports made by Warren Cowdery, the president of the church conference in Freedom, New York, which the Quorum of the Twelve attended in the course of their mission. Cowdery’s charges that the Twelve had not been following JS’s commission to raise money for building the House of the Lord were deemed false.c  


aJS, Kirtland, OH, to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, 4 Aug. 1835, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 90–93; Minute Book 1, 26 Sept. 1835; Orson Hyde and William E. McLellin, Kirtland, OH, Oct. 1835, Letter to the editor, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Oct. 1835, 2:204–207.

b“Notice” and William E. McLellin, Notice, 27 Feb. 1835, LDS Messenger and Advocate, Feb. 1835, 1:80; Kimball, “History,” 27.

cMinute Book 1, 26 Sept. 1835; Porter, “Odyssey of William Earl McLellin,” 318; Esplin, “Emergence of Brigham Young,” 166–170; see also JS, Journal, 16 Jan. 1836.

27 September 1835 • Sunday

27th Sunday. Attended meeting: brethren, Thomas  B. Marsh

1 Nov. 1800–Jan. 1866. Farmer, hotel worker, waiter, horse groom, grocer, type foundry worker, teacher. Born at Acton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of James Marsh and Molly Law. Married first Elizabeth Godkin, 1 Nov. 1820, at New York City. Moved to ...

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, David W. Patten

14 Nov. 1799–25 Oct. 1838. Farmer. Born in Vermont. Son of Benoni Patten and Edith Cole. Moved to Theresa, Oneida Co., New York, as a young child. Moved to Dundee, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, as a youth. Married Phoebe Ann Babcock, 1828, in Dundee. Affiliated...

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, Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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and Heber C.  Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

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11

These were the four oldest members of the Quorum of the Twelve. At this time, seniority in the quorum was based on age. (JS History, vol. B-1, 589.)  


preached and broke bread

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

View Glossary
. The Lord poured out  his Spirit, and my soul was edified.

28 September 1835 • Monday

28th. High council

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

View Glossary
met and tried brother Gladden Bish op

19 June 1809–30 Nov. 1864. Watchmaker, minister. Born at Livonia, Ontario Co., New York. Son of Isaac Gates Bishop and Mary Hyde. Served as minister in Freewill Baptist Church, by 1831. Baptized into LDS church and ordained an elder, 2 July 1832, in Olean...

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: he was reproved, repented, and was reordained

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

View Glossary
. The next was  Lorenzo L. Lewis

Ca. 1809–ca. May 1897. Millwright. Born in New York. Son of Job L. Lewis and Margaret Lowers. Baptized into LDS church, probably at Westfield, Chautauque Co., New York. Ordained an elder, 13 May 1835, in Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Appointed to serve mission...

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for fornication: he was cut off from  the Church.12

Francis Gladden Bishop was charged with “advancing heretical doctrines which were derogatory to the character of the Church.” Lewis’s partial confession was judged unsatisfactory. (Minute Book 1, 28 Sept. 1835.)  


29 September 1835 • Tuesday

29th High Council

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

View Glossary
met to-day and tried brother  Allen Avery: he was acquited from any charge.13

Avery was charged with rebelling against the decision of the Missouri elders council to take away his elder’s license. However, Avery came forward and “complied with the requisitions of the council” and was restored to his office. (Minute Book 1, 29 Sept. 1835.)  


Also  Brother Phineas H. Young

16 Feb. 1799–10 Oct. 1879. Printer, saddler, farmer. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Moved to Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont, ca. 1801. Moved to New York. Married first Clarissa Hamilton, 28 Sept...

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, who was also acquited:14

Phineas Young was charged with “unchristian like conduct” in connection with his sale and distribution of a handful of copies of the Book of Mormon during his 1835 proselytizing journey. (Minute Book 1, 29 Sept. 1835.)  


 also bro. Lorenzo Young

19 Oct. 1807–21 Nov. 1895. Farmer, plasterer, gardener, blacksmith, nurseryman. Born at Smyrna, Chenango Co., New York. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Married Persis Goodall, 6 June 1826, at Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York. Baptized into LDS...

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, who confessed his error  and was forgiven.15

Lorenzo Young was charged by William W. Phelps with teaching that “poor men ought not to raise up seed or children” but that they might be permitted to marry. After Young “made an humble acknowledgement,” the charge was dismissed. (Minute Book 1, 29 Sept. 1835.)  


In all these I acted on  the part of the defence for the accused to plead  for mercy. The Lord blessed my soul, and the coun cil was greatly blessed, also. Much good will  no doubt, result from our labors during the  two days in which we were occupied on the  business of the Church.

30 September 1835 • Wednesday

30th. Stayed at home and visited many who came  to enquire after the work of the Lord.

1 October 1835 • Thursday

October 1, 1835. This after noon labored16

The entry for this same date in JS’s 1834–1836 history reads “stayed at home and labored.”  


 on the Egyptian alphabet

1 Sep. 1835

JS worked periodically on Book of Abraham translation, Kirtland, Ohio.

, in company with brsr  O[liver] Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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and W[illiam] W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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:17

Their efforts apparently included the creation of three documents—nearly identical in content—that include transcripts of Egyptian characters in parallel with material written in English. (Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, 3, 4, 5, CHL; see also Gee, “Eyewitness, Hearsay, and Physical Evidence,” 196.)  


The system of astronomy  was unfolded.18

Possibly refers to the astronomical material in three “Egyptian alphabet” documents. Astronomical material also appeared in JS’s published “Book of Abraham.” (Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, 3, 4, 5, CHL; “The Book of Abraham,” Times and Seasons,1 Mar. 1842, 3:703–706; 15 Mar. 1842, 3:719–722 [Abraham 1–5]; see also JS History, vol. B-1, 622; and Gee, “Eyewitness, Hearsay, and Physical Evidence,” 197–203.)  


2 October 1835 • Friday

2nd. To-day wrote a letter to be published in the  Messenger and Advocate.19

This was the first in a series of three letters written by JS and published in successive issues of the LDS Messenger and Advocate to provide instruction for traveling elders. This first letter provides an account of Mormon settlement in Jackson County and a doctrinal exposition of faith, repentance, baptism, and receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, which JS considered the foundational principles and ordinances of the restored gospel. (JS, “To the Elders of the Church of Latter Day Saints,” LDS Messenger and Advocate, Sept. 1835, 1:179–182; see also Nov. 1835, 2:209–212; and Dec. 1835, 2:225–230.)  


[p. 3]
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JS, “Sketch Book for the use of Joseph Smith, jr.,” Journal, Sept. 1835–Apr. 1836; handwriting of Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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, an unidentified scribe, Sylvester Smith

25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...

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, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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, Warren Cowdery

17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...

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, JS, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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; 195 pages; JS Collection, CHL. Includes redactions and archival marking.
The text block consists of 114 leaves—including single flyleaves and pastedowns in the front and back—measuring 12¼ x 8 inches (31 x 20 cm). The 110 interior leaves are ledger paper with thirty-four lines in faint—and now faded—black ink that has turned brown. There are nine gatherings of various sizes—each about a dozen leaves per gathering. The text block is sewn all along over cloth tapes. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a brown calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in shell marbled paper, with dark green body and veins of light green. The bound volume measures 12⅜ x 8¼ inches (31 x 21 cm) and is 13/16 inches (2 cm) thick. One cover of the book is labeled “Repentence.” in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains eight lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to Repentince”. The spine has “No 8” inscribed upside up when the book is standing upright for this side. When the volume is turned upside down and flipped front to back, the other cover is titled “Sabbath Day” with “No 9” written beneath in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains two lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to the Sabbath day”. Thus the book was used to simultaneously house two volumes of topical notes on biblical passages. This book was apparently part of a larger series that included at least two other extant volumes—one bearing “Faith” and “10” on the cover, and the other bearing “Second Comeing of Christ” and “No 3” on one cover and “Gift of the Holy Ghost” on the other cover.1

“Grammar & Aphabet of the Egyptian Language,” Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record”.  


In late 1835, JS and scribes began using the book to record his journal for 1835–1836, which begins on the recto of the second leaf of ledger paper. Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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added the title “Sketch Book” to the cover, beneath “Repentence.”.
The entire journal is inscribed in black ink that later turned brown. Pages 25, 51, 77, 103, 129, and 154 bear the marks of adhesive wafers that were probably used to attach manuscripts until they were copied into the journal. The journal was used in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, Illinois, in 1843 as a major source in composing JS’s multivolume manuscript history of the church. At this time, redactions were made in ink and in graphite pencil, and use marks were made in graphite. Also, apparently in Nauvoo, the cover of the journal side of the book was marked with a “D” and then with a larger, stylized “D”. At some point a white paper spine label was added with “1835–6 <Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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> JOURNAL” hand printed or stenciled in black ink that later turned brown. The insertion “Kirtland” is written in graphite. Also, in the “Repentence” side of the volume, the rectos of the third through eighth leaves of ledger paper are numbered on the upper right-hand corners as 195, 197, 199, 201, 203, and 205—all written in graphite and apparently redactions. Except with regard to the title “Sketch Book”, none of the authors of the inscriptions mentioned previously have been identified. This volume is listed in Nauvoo and early Utah inventories of church records, indicating continuous custody.2

Historian’s Office, “Schedule of Church Records”; “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” [1], Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.  


Facts