27467

Journal, 1835–1836

24 November 1835 • Tuesday

Tuesday 24th at home, spent the fore noon, instructing those that called to inquire concerning the things of God, in the last days: in the after-noon, we translated some of the Egyptian, records

1 Sep. 1835

JS worked periodically on Book of Abraham translation, Kirtland, Ohio.

; I had an invitation, to attend a wedding at Br. Hiram Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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’s in the evening also to solemnize the matrimonial ceremony

24 Nov. 1835

JS solemnized his first recorded wedding, marrying Newel Knight and Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey, Kirtland, Ohio.

, between Newell Knights Newel Knight

13 Sept. 1800–11 Jan. 1847. Miller, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. Moved to Jericho (later Bainbridge), Chenango Co., New York, ca. 1809. Moved to Windsor (later in Colesville), Broome Co., New...

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& Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey

9 June 1812–3 Apr. 1884. Boardinghouse operator, weaver, teacher. Born at Sutton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Jesse G. Goldthwaite and Sally Burt. Married first Calvin Bailey, fall 1828, but deserted by him, 1832. Moved to home of Eleazer Freeman...

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I and my wife

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

View Full Bio
, went, when we arrived a conciderable company, had collected, the bridegroom

13 Sept. 1800–11 Jan. 1847. Miller, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. Moved to Jericho (later Bainbridge), Chenango Co., New York, ca. 1809. Moved to Windsor (later in Colesville), Broome Co., New...

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& bride

9 June 1812–3 Apr. 1884. Boardinghouse operator, weaver, teacher. Born at Sutton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Jesse G. Goldthwaite and Sally Burt. Married first Calvin Bailey, fall 1828, but deserted by him, 1832. Moved to home of Eleazer Freeman...

View Full Bio
came in, and took their seats, which gave me to understand that they were ready, I requesteded them to arise and join hands, I then remarked that marriage was an institution of heaven institude instituted in the garden of Eden, that it was necessary that it should be Solemnized by the authority of the everlasting priesthood

Power or authority of God. The priesthood was conferred through the laying on of hands upon adult male members of the church in good standing; no specialized training was required. Priesthood officers held responsibility for administering the sacrament of...

View Glossary
, before joining hands however, we attended prayers. I then made the remarks above stated;130

This marriage solemnized by JS for Newel Knight—a friend from JS’s New York years—and Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey is the first known wedding performed by JS; ten more followed over the next two months.a Newel Knight recorded, “We received much Instruction from the Prophet concerning matrimony, & what the ancient order of God was, & what it must be again concerning marriage.”b A statement on marriage published in August 1835 stated that weddings could be performed by either priesthood officers or “other authority,”c but on this occasion JS emphasized priesthood authority. After Geauga County authorities refused to issue Sidney Rigdon a license to perform marriages, apparently no other Latter-day Saint priesthood holders applied in that county.d Ohio state law allowed for regularly ordained ministers to solemnize marriages with or without a license if they fulfilled the statutory requirement for recording.e Thus JS probably believed—with some justification—that he acted within his statutory rights in performing marriages. However, the church was not legally incorporated in the state of Ohio at this time.f  The arrest of Joseph Smith Sr., an ordained Latter-day Saint minister, in early 1838 on a charge of illegal performance of marriage suggests that the authority of Latter-day Saints to perform marriages in Ohio was still at least an open question at that time. The senior Smith was allowed to escape, and so the case did not come to trial.g  


aBradshaw, “Joseph Smith’s Performance of Marriages in Ohio,” 24; see also Hartley, “Newel and Lydia Bailey Knight’s Kirtland Love Story.”

bKnight, Autobiography, [60]].

c“Marriage,” ca. Aug. 1835, in Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1835 ed.

dGeauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. M, p. 380–381, Mar. 1835, microfilm 20,277, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.

eAn Act Regulating Marriages [6 Jan. 1824], Statutes of Ohio, vol. 2, p. 1407, sec. 2.

fVilate Kimball, Kirtland, OH, to Heber C. Kimball, Preston, England, 19, 21, and 24 Jan. 1838, Heber C. Kimball, Collection, CHL.

gHistorian’s Office, “History of Luke Johnson,” 6–7, Histories of the Twelve, ca. 1858–1880, CHL.

The ceremony was original with me it was in substance as follows, You covenant to be each others companions through life, and discharge the duties of husband & wife in every respect to which they assented, I then pronounced them husband & Wife in the name of God and also the blessings that the Lord confered upon adam & Eve in the garden of Eden; that is to multiply and replenish the earth, with the addition of long life and prosperity; dismissed them and returned home.— The weather is freezing cold, some snow on the ground [p. 49]

24 November 1835 • Tuesday

Tuesday 24th at home, spent the  fore noon, instructing those that called to inquire  concerning the things of God, in the last da ys: in the after-noon, we translated some of the  Egyptian, records

1 Sep. 1835

JS worked periodically on Book of Abraham translation, Kirtland, Ohio.

; I had an invitation, to attend  a wedding at Br. Hiram [Hyrum] Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

View Full Bio
’s in the evening  also to solemnize the matrimonial ceremony

24 Nov. 1835

JS solemnized his first recorded wedding, marrying Newel Knight and Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey, Kirtland, Ohio.

,  <between Newell Knights [Newel Knight]

13 Sept. 1800–11 Jan. 1847. Miller, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. Moved to Jericho (later Bainbridge), Chenango Co., New York, ca. 1809. Moved to Windsor (later in Colesville), Broome Co., New...

View Full Bio
& Lydia Goldthwaite [Bailey]

9 June 1812–3 Apr. 1884. Boardinghouse operator, weaver, teacher. Born at Sutton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Jesse G. Goldthwaite and Sally Burt. Married first Calvin Bailey, fall 1828, but deserted by him, 1832. Moved to home of Eleazer Freeman...

View Full Bio
> I and my wife

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

View Full Bio
, went, when we arrived a  conciderable company, had collected, the  bridegroom

13 Sept. 1800–11 Jan. 1847. Miller, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. Moved to Jericho (later Bainbridge), Chenango Co., New York, ca. 1809. Moved to Windsor (later in Colesville), Broome Co., New...

View Full Bio
& bride

9 June 1812–3 Apr. 1884. Boardinghouse operator, weaver, teacher. Born at Sutton, Worcester Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Jesse G. Goldthwaite and Sally Burt. Married first Calvin Bailey, fall 1828, but deserted by him, 1832. Moved to home of Eleazer Freeman...

View Full Bio
came in, and took their  seats, which gave me to understand that  they were ready, I requesteded them to arise  and join hands, I then remarked that  marriage was an institution of h[e]aven  institude [instituted] in the garden of Eden, that it  was necessary that it should be Solemnized  by the authority of the everlasting priesthood

Power or authority of God. The priesthood was conferred through the laying on of hands upon adult male members of the church in good standing; no specialized training was required. Priesthood officers held responsibility for administering the sacrament of...

View Glossary
,  before joining hands however, we attended  prayers. I then made the remarks above  stated;130

This marriage solemnized by JS for Newel Knight—a friend from JS’s New York years—and Lydia Goldthwaite Bailey is the first known wedding performed by JS; ten more followed over the next two months.a Newel Knight recorded, “We received much Instruction from the Prophet concerning matrimony, & what the ancient order of God was, & what it must be again concerning marriage.”b A statement on marriage published in August 1835 stated that weddings could be performed by either priesthood officers or “other authority,”c but on this occasion JS emphasized priesthood authority. After Geauga County authorities refused to issue Sidney Rigdon a license to perform marriages, apparently no other Latter-day Saint priesthood holders applied in that county.d Ohio state law allowed for regularly ordained ministers to solemnize marriages with or without a license if they fulfilled the statutory requirement for recording.e Thus JS probably believed—with some justification—that he acted within his statutory rights in performing marriages. However, the church was not legally incorporated in the state of Ohio at this time.f  The arrest of Joseph Smith Sr., an ordained Latter-day Saint minister, in early 1838 on a charge of illegal performance of marriage suggests that the authority of Latter-day Saints to perform marriages in Ohio was still at least an open question at that time. The senior Smith was allowed to escape, and so the case did not come to trial.g  


aBradshaw, “Joseph Smith’s Performance of Marriages in Ohio,” 24; see also Hartley, “Newel and Lydia Bailey Knight’s Kirtland Love Story.”

bKnight, Autobiography, [60]].

c“Marriage,” ca. Aug. 1835, in Doctrine and Covenants 101, 1835 ed.

dGeauga Co., OH, Court of Common Pleas, Court Records, 1807–1904, vol. M, p. 380–381, Mar. 1835, microfilm 20,277, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL.

eAn Act Regulating Marriages [6 Jan. 1824], Statutes of Ohio, vol. 2, p. 1407, sec. 2.

fVilate Kimball, Kirtland, OH, to Heber C. Kimball, Preston, England, 19, 21, and 24 Jan. 1838, Heber C. Kimball, Collection, CHL.

gHistorian’s Office, “History of Luke Johnson,” 6–7, Histories of the Twelve, ca. 1858–1880, CHL.

The ceremony was original <with me> it was in  substance as follows, You covenant to be each  others companions through life, and discharge  the duties of husband & wife in every respect  to which they assented, I then pronounced  them husband & Wife in the name of God  and also pronounced the blessings that the  Lord confered upon adam & Eve in the gar den of Eden; that is to multiply and replen ish the earth, with the addition of long life  and prosperity; dismissed them and returned  home.— The weather is freezing cold, some snow  on the ground [p. 49]
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JS, “Sketch Book for the use of Joseph Smith, jr.,” Journal, Sept. 1835–Apr. 1836; handwriting of Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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, an unidentified scribe, Sylvester Smith

25 Mar. 1806–22 Feb. 1880. Farmer, carpenter, lawyer, realtor. Born at Tyringham, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Chileab Smith and Nancy Marshall. Moved to Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio, ca. 1815. Married Elizabeth Frank, 27 Dec. 1827, likely in Chautauque...

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, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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, Warren Cowdery

17 Oct. 1788–23 Feb. 1851. Physician, druggist, farmer, editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Married Patience Simonds, 22 Sept. 1814, in Pawlet, Rutland Co. Moved to Freedom, Cattaraugus Co., New York, 1816...

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, JS, and Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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; 195 pages; JS Collection, CHL. Includes redactions and archival marking.
The text block consists of 114 leaves—including single flyleaves and pastedowns in the front and back—measuring 12¼ x 8 inches (31 x 20 cm). The 110 interior leaves are ledger paper with thirty-four lines in faint—and now faded—black ink that has turned brown. There are nine gatherings of various sizes—each about a dozen leaves per gathering. The text block is sewn all along over cloth tapes. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a brown calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in shell marbled paper, with dark green body and veins of light green. The bound volume measures 12⅜ x 8¼ inches (31 x 21 cm) and is 13/16 inches (2 cm) thick. One cover of the book is labeled “Repentence.” in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains eight lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to Repentince”. The spine has “No 8” inscribed upside up when the book is standing upright for this side. When the volume is turned upside down and flipped front to back, the other cover is titled “Sabbath Day” with “No 9” written beneath in black ink. The first page of ledger paper under that cover contains two lines of references to the book of Genesis under the heading “Scriptures relating to the Sabbath day”. Thus the book was used to simultaneously house two volumes of topical notes on biblical passages. This book was apparently part of a larger series that included at least two other extant volumes—one bearing “Faith” and “10” on the cover, and the other bearing “Second Comeing of Christ” and “No 3” on one cover and “Gift of the Holy Ghost” on the other cover.1

“Grammar & Aphabet of the Egyptian Language,” Kirtland Egyptian Papers, ca. 1835–1836, CHL; Kirtland Elders Quorum, “Record”.  


In late 1835, JS and scribes began using the book to record his journal for 1835–1836, which begins on the recto of the second leaf of ledger paper. Warren Parrish

10 Jan. 1803–3 Jan. 1877. Clergyman, gardener. Born in New York. Son of John Parrish and Ruth Farr. Married first Elizabeth (Betsey) Patten of Westmoreland Co., New Hampshire, ca. 1822. Lived at Alexandria, Jefferson Co., New York, 1830. Purchased land at...

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added the title “Sketch Book” to the cover, beneath “Repentence.”.
The entire journal is inscribed in black ink that later turned brown. Pages 25, 51, 77, 103, 129, and 154 bear the marks of adhesive wafers that were probably used to attach manuscripts until they were copied into the journal. The journal was used in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, Illinois, in 1843 as a major source in composing JS’s multivolume manuscript history of the church. At this time, redactions were made in ink and in graphite pencil, and use marks were made in graphite. Also, apparently in Nauvoo, the cover of the journal side of the book was marked with a “D” and then with a larger, stylized “D”. At some point a white paper spine label was added with “1835–6 <Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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> JOURNAL” hand printed or stenciled in black ink that later turned brown. The insertion “Kirtland” is written in graphite. Also, in the “Repentence” side of the volume, the rectos of the third through eighth leaves of ledger paper are numbered on the upper right-hand corners as 195, 197, 199, 201, 203, and 205—all written in graphite and apparently redactions. Except with regard to the title “Sketch Book”, none of the authors of the inscriptions mentioned previously have been identified. This volume is listed in Nauvoo and early Utah inventories of church records, indicating continuous custody.2

Historian’s Office, “Schedule of Church Records”; “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” [1], Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.  


Facts