53992207

Journal, December 1842–June 1844; Book 2, 10 March 1843–14 July 1843

Journal, December 1842–June 1844; Book 2, 10 March 1843–14 July 1843

15 March 1843 • Wednesday

Wednesday March 15th Dictated letter to George J. Adams

7 Nov. 1810–11 May 1880. Tailor, actor, clergyman. Born in Oxford, Sussex Co., New Jersey. Lived in Boston during 1820s and 1830s. Became Methodist lay preacher. Married Caroline. Moved to New York City, before 1840. Baptized into LDS church, Feb. 1840, in...

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— read letter from Justin Butterfield

1790–Oct. 1855. Teacher, lawyer. Born in Keene, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire. Ca. 1810, moved to Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York, where he taught school and studied law. Admitted to bar, 1812, at Watertown. Practiced law in Adams, Jefferson Co., and Sackets...

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25

JS responded to Butterfield by 19 March.  


& Arlington Bennett James Arlington Bennet

21 Dec. 1788–25 Dec. 1863. Attorney, newspaper publisher, educator, author. Born in New York. Married first Sophia, ca. 1811. Served as third and later second lieutenant in First U.S. Artillery, 1 Aug. 1813–14 Oct. 1814. Published American System of Practical...

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.—26

In this letter, Bennet referred to the “peculiar distressed situation” about which JS had written him earlier—a reference, presumably, to John C. Bennett’s recent threats to have JS arrested on charges dating back to the Missouri conflict of 1838–1839. James Arlington Bennet recounted to JS the steps he had taken to thwart Bennett’s designs and assured JS that any effort to prosecute JS would be unsuccessful. Bennet also noted that John C. Bennett’s book attacking the Mormons was a failure, and he castigated New York Herald editor James Gordon Bennett, who continued to “make sport” of JS in the pages of his paper. JS responded two days after receiving the letter. (James Arlington Bennet, Arlington House, Long Island, NY, to JS, Nauvoo, IL, 20 Feb. 1843, JS Materials, CCLA; JS, Journal, 18 Jan. and 17 Mar. 1843.)  


Signed Deeds for. sister Lydia Dibble granger. & Mary Bailey Smith

20 Dec. 1808–25 Jan. 1841. Born at Bedford, Hillsborough Co., New Hampshire. Daughter of Joshua Bailey and Hannah Boutwell. Baptized into LDS church by Samuel H. Smith, 26 June 1832, at Boston. Migrated from Boston to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1833. Married...

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. & Alreed Reuben W. Allred.27

Nauvoo Registry of Deeds, Record of Deeds, bk. A, p. pp. 187–188; bk. B, pp. 42–43; Indenture, JS (Trustee-in-trust) to Lydia Dibble Granger, Hancock Co., IL, 15 Mar. 1843, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  


Spent the day mostly in the office.
gave the following name to the “Wasp” enlarged. as is contemplated
“The Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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Neighbor”
“Our Motto, the saints singularity”
“Is unity. liberty. Charity.”28

An announcement declared The Wasp was to be discontinued with the 19 April issue, its size doubled, and its title changed to Nauvoo Neighbor. The final issue of The Wasp was the 26 April 1843 issue, and the inaugural issue of the Nauvoo Neighbor, edited by John Taylor, appeared on 3 May 1843. Under the nameplate, the newspaper regularly printed the phrases approved by JS: “OUR MOTTO—THE SAINTS’ SINGULARITY—IS UNITY, LIBERTY, CHARITY.” The change of names may be partly attributable to the fact that James Arlington Bennet did not like The Wasp as a name for the paper. “Mildness should characterise every thing that comes from Nauvoo,” he wrote to JS, “and even a name . . . has much influence on one side or the other.” (“Prospectus of a Weekly Newspaper, Called the Nauvoo Neighbor,” The Wasp, 5 Apr. 1843, [1]; James Arlington Bennet to JS, 16 Aug. 1842.)  


Joseph. prophecied in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. that Orrin Porter Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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will get away from the Missourians,29

Rockwell was arrested in St. Louis in early March 1843 for the attempted murder of Missouri’s former governor Lilburn W. Boggs. Ultimately Rockwell was not indicted for shooting Boggs, but he was indicted for attempting to escape while the grand jury at Independence, Missouri, investigated the charges against him. The case was transferred to the Fifth Judicial Circuit with Austin A. King presiding as judge and Alexander Doniphan serving as Rockwell’s court-appointed attorney. The trial was held 11 December 1843; the jury convicted Rockwell of jailbreaking and sentenced him to five minutes’ imprisonment. Rockwell was released on 13 December and arrived in Nauvoo on 25 December 1843. (JS, Journal, 13 Mar. 1843; Smith, “Mormon Troubles in Missouri,” 249–251; and JS, Journal, 25 Dec. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.)  


told Hawes Peter Haws

17 Feb. 1796–1862. Farmer, miller, businessman. Born in Leeds Co., Johnstown District (later in Ontario), Upper Canada. Son of Edward Haws and Polly. Married Charlotte Harrington. Baptized into LDS church. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Served mission...

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he must curtail his boys or they will get into State Prison.30

Haws’s sons Alpheus and Albert were seventeen and twelve years old, respectively. (Black, Early Members of the Reorganized Church, 3:376.)  


[p. 9]

15 March 1843 • Wednesday

Wednesday March 15th  Dictated letter to G[eorge] J. Adams

7 Nov. 1810–11 May 1880. Tailor, actor, clergyman. Born in Oxford, Sussex Co., New Jersey. Lived in Boston during 1820s and 1830s. Became Methodist lay preacher. Married Caroline. Moved to New York City, before 1840. Baptized into LDS church, Feb. 1840, in...

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 read letter from [Justin] Butterfield

1790–Oct. 1855. Teacher, lawyer. Born in Keene, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire. Ca. 1810, moved to Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York, where he taught school and studied law. Admitted to bar, 1812, at Watertown. Practiced law in Adams, Jefferson Co., and Sackets...

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25

JS responded to Butterfield by 19 March.  


&  Arlington Bennett [James Arlington Bennet]

21 Dec. 1788–25 Dec. 1863. Attorney, newspaper publisher, educator, author. Born in New York. Married first Sophia, ca. 1811. Served as third and later second lieutenant in First U.S. Artillery, 1 Aug. 1813–14 Oct. 1814. Published American System of Practical...

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.—26

In this letter, Bennet referred to the “peculiar distressed situation” about which JS had written him earlier—a reference, presumably, to John C. Bennett’s recent threats to have JS arrested on charges dating back to the Missouri conflict of 1838–1839. James Arlington Bennet recounted to JS the steps he had taken to thwart Bennett’s designs and assured JS that any effort to prosecute JS would be unsuccessful. Bennet also noted that John C. Bennett’s book attacking the Mormons was a failure, and he castigated New York Herald editor James Gordon Bennett, who continued to “make sport” of JS in the pages of his paper. JS responded two days after receiving the letter. (James Arlington Bennet, Arlington House, Long Island, NY, to JS, Nauvoo, IL, 20 Feb. 1843, JS Materials, CCLA; JS, Journal, 18 Jan. and 17 Mar. 1843.)  


Signed Deeds  for. sister [Lydia Dibble] granger. & [Mary Bailey] Smith

20 Dec. 1808–25 Jan. 1841. Born at Bedford, Hillsborough Co., New Hampshire. Daughter of Joshua Bailey and Hannah Boutwell. Baptized into LDS church by Samuel H. Smith, 26 June 1832, at Boston. Migrated from Boston to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1833. Married...

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. & Alreed [Reuben W. Allred].27

Nauvoo Registry of Deeds, Record of Deeds, bk. A, p. pp. 187–188; bk. B, pp. 42–43; Indenture, JS (Trustee-in-trust) to Lydia Dibble Granger, Hancock Co., IL, 15 Mar. 1843, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.  


Spent the day mostly in the office.
gave the following name to the  “Wasp” enlarged. as is contemplated
“The Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
Neighbor”
“Our Motto, the saints singularity”
“Is unity. liberty. Charity.”28

An announcement declared The Wasp was to be discontinued with the 19 April issue, its size doubled, and its title changed to Nauvoo Neighbor. The final issue of The Wasp was the 26 April 1843 issue, and the inaugural issue of the Nauvoo Neighbor, edited by John Taylor, appeared on 3 May 1843. Under the nameplate, the newspaper regularly printed the phrases approved by JS: “OUR MOTTO—THE SAINTS’ SINGULARITY—IS UNITY, LIBERTY, CHARITY.” The change of names may be partly attributable to the fact that James Arlington Bennet did not like The Wasp as a name for the paper. “Mildness should characterise every thing that comes from Nauvoo,” he wrote to JS, “and even a name . . . has much influence on one side or the other.” (“Prospectus of a Weekly Newspaper, Called the Nauvoo Neighbor,” The Wasp, 5 Apr. 1843, [1]; James Arlington Bennet to JS, 16 Aug. 1842.)  


Joseph. prophecied in the name  of the Lord Jesus Christ. that [Orrin] Porter  Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

View Full Bio
will get away from the  Missourians,29

Rockwell was arrested in St. Louis in early March 1843 for the attempted murder of Missouri’s former governor Lilburn W. Boggs. Ultimately Rockwell was not indicted for shooting Boggs, but he was indicted for attempting to escape while the grand jury at Independence, Missouri, investigated the charges against him. The case was transferred to the Fifth Judicial Circuit with Austin A. King presiding as judge and Alexander Doniphan serving as Rockwell’s court-appointed attorney. The trial was held 11 December 1843; the jury convicted Rockwell of jailbreaking and sentenced him to five minutes’ imprisonment. Rockwell was released on 13 December and arrived in Nauvoo on 25 December 1843. (JS, Journal, 13 Mar. 1843; Smith, “Mormon Troubles in Missouri,” 249–251; and JS, Journal, 25 Dec. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.)  


told Hawes [Peter Haws]

17 Feb. 1796–1862. Farmer, miller, businessman. Born in Leeds Co., Johnstown District (later in Ontario), Upper Canada. Son of Edward Haws and Polly. Married Charlotte Harrington. Baptized into LDS church. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Served mission...

View Full Bio
he must curtail his  boys or they will get into State Prison.30

Haws’s sons Alpheus and Albert were seventeen and twelve years old, respectively. (Black, Early Members of the Reorganized Church, 3:376.)  


[p. 9]
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Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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took over the responsibility of journal keeping from William Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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on 21 December 1842, the same day JS “made a particular request” that Richards “act as his private se[c]retary & historian.”1

JS, Journal, 21 Dec. 1842.  


While Clayton—and Richards before him—had kept JS’s previous Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

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journal in the large “Book of the Law of the Lord,” which also contained records of donations for the Nauvoo temple, Richards began this journal in a much smaller memorandum book. The journal, which Richards kept through 22 June 1844, five days before JS’s death, eventually comprised four such memorandum books. The entire first book and part of the second (through April 1843) are presented here; the remainder of Richards’s second notebook, as well as the third and fourth books, will be published in volume 3 in the Journals series of The Joseph Smith Papers.
Several pieces of evidence indicate that these four memorandum books were considered volumes of the same journal rather than separate journals themselves. For example, whereas JS’s journals kept during the 1830s were recorded in bound books or notebooks labeled with different titles—such as “Sketch Book” or “The Scriptory Book”2

See JSP, J1:53, 225.  


—the first and last of Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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’s memorandum books bear virtually identical titles, with the fourth explicitly identified as “vol 4”. Similarly, that books 2 and 3 lack titles suggests that each was simply a continuation of the previous book. This suggestion is made even stronger in book 2, in which the first entry commences at 4:00 p.m. on 10 March, with the events of the earlier part of the day recorded at the end of book 1. All four memorandum books are virtually the same size, and the bindings on the first three are similar.
As with nearly all the entries in JS’s previous Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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and Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

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journals, JS neither wrote nor dictated the text of the entries in the memorandum books; they are based on Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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’s observations. For example, the entry for 22 September 1843 records only that Richards “Saw Joseph pass in a waggon with Hiram.”3

JS, Journal, 22 Sept. 1843, JS Collection, CHL.  


Despite the secondhand nature of the entries, however, Richards, a close associate and frequent companion of JS, was able to capture in detail JS’s words and actions on many occasions.
Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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had kept JS’s journal in the Book of the Law of the Lord from December 1841 to June 1842 in his earlier capacity as “Recorder. for the Temple, and the Scribe for the private office of the President.”4

JS, Journal, 13 Dec. 1841.  


When he began keeping this journal on 21 December 1842, however, he did so as JS’s newly appointed “private se[c]retary & historian.”5

JS, Journal, 21 Dec. 1842.  


The change in titles may seem insignificant, but Richards was very much aware of his new role: where he had occasionally identified himself as “recorder” and “scribe” in JS’s previous journal, he now referred to himself as the “sec.” The shift in titles and responsibilities may have been at least part of the reason the journal was transferred to the memorandum books; William Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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, who replaced Richards as temple recorder in September 1842,6

Clayton, History of the Nauvoo Temple, 30–31.  


retained custody of the Book of the Law of the Lord and continued its record of temple donations.
The change in Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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’s title, as well as the transfer of the journal out of the Book of the Law of the Lord, may have influenced what events Richards recorded in the memorandum books. At least some of the material Richards, as JS’s private secretary, included in this journal—such as the detailed record of a medical malpractice suit over which JS presided—probably would have received much less emphasis had Richards, in the capacity of temple recorder and scribe, been keeping JS’s journal in the book that also contained records of donations for the temple. Similarly, although the ledger-size Book of the Law of the Lord likely remained in the recorder’s office, and most journal entries were probably made there, each of the memorandum books was small enough that Richards could easily carry it with him, allowing him to record many of JS’s activities closer to the actual event—both temporally and spatially—than was possible earlier.
Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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’s new title of historian was significant as well. On 1 December 1842, Richards began working on the “History of Joseph Smith” that was being serially published in the Times and Seasons, and by August 1843 he was drawing on JS’s earlier journals for that history.7

JS, Journal, 1 Dec. 1842 and 20 Jan. 1843; Richards, Journal, 1 Dec. 1842; Jessee, “Writing of Joseph Smith’s History,” 441.  


Richards therefore expected that the contemporaneous journal entries he was keeping for JS would eventually be used as the basis for JS’s history.
Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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employed various techniques in keeping the journal. For a few entries, he made lightly penciled notes and returned later with a quill pen to expand the entry. In other entries, the morning or afternoon portion of an entry was written in one ink and the evening portion of the entry in a different ink that matches that of the following entry. These changes in writing media and in other aspects of the inscribed text indicate that many entries—or parts of entries—were made on the very day of the events they described. The textual evidence in other entries indicates that they were written several days after the date they bear. Still other entries are a hybrid. Richards’s notes of sermons and legal proceedings, for example, bear evidence of both contemporaneous inscription and later revision. In some instances, Richards left blank spaces and even blank lines, apparently intending to add details later. Hurried note-taking often resulted in missing words, informal abbreviations, inconsistent spelling, and poorly formed characters. Richards revisited some difficult passages to mend or rewrite characters, revise spelling and punctuation, and add interlineations. Some of the blanks were filled while others were left standing. Richards’s notes include both immediate emendations, such as wipe-erasures made while his ink was still wet, as well as later revisions, such as knife-erasures of words written in ink that had dried. The various ways in which Richards wrote and revised entries resulted in the journal’s uneven texture but also contributed to its wealth of immediately recorded information and clarifying additions.
Over time, Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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settled somewhat into a pattern of generally recording the events of one day on one page—some pages largely empty and others filled with cramped writing—with weather reported at the bottom of the page. He made an entry for almost every day during the last year and a half of JS’s life. The journal ended when JS left Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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on 22 June 1844, five days before he was killed at the jailhouse at Carthage

Located eighteen miles southeast of Nauvoo. Settled 1831. Designated Hancock Co. seat, Mar. 1833. Incorporated as town, 27 Feb. 1837. Population in 1839 about 300. Population in 1844 about 400. Site of anti-Mormon meetings and resolutions, early 1840s. Site...

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, Illinois. Richards accompanied JS to Carthage and, during the final days of JS’s life, kept extensive notes of JS’s activities in his personal journal.
Note: The journal Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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kept for JS is divided into four physical books. The transcript and annotation here are for the first part of book 2, covering 10 March through 30 April 1843. The transcript and annotation for the entirety of book 1, covering 21 December 1842 through 10 March 1843, are also available on this website. The transcript and annotation for the remainder of book 2 and for books 3 and 4 will be published later.

Facts