2475714

Letter from Oliver Cowdery, 28 January 1832

For the foregoing reasons we have sent only for mechanics knowing that others are commanded to come & believing that others will come without a command48

An August 1831 revelation stated that “in as much as there is lands obtained [in Missouri] let there be workmen sent forth of all kinds unto this land to labour for the saints of God.” This same revelation instructed those wanting to migrate to Missouri to obtain approval from the “Elders of the Church.” In addition, another August 1831 revelation stated that JS would have “power . . . to descern by the spirit those who shall go up unto the land of Zion & those of my Desiples that shall tarry.” However, as Partridge anticipated, some moved to the state without gaining such approval. (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:54, 56]; Revelation, 30 Aug. 1831 [D&C 63:41]; see, for example, Letter to William W. Phelps, 31 July 1832; and Whitmer, History, 30.)  


not knowing but that they may.——
We do not expect that all the mechanics will be found & sent but we have sent for those most ” needed.”——
Among the mechanics sent for it is expected that one blacksmith one shoemaker and one mason will come in the Church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
from Nelson

Located about nineteen miles southeast of Kirtland Township and immediately east of Hiram Township. Settled by New Englanders, 1800. Population in 1820 about 400. Population in 1830 about 900. Agricultural region producing grass, wheat, and fruit. John Whitmer...

More Info
. and brothers David Elliott

18 Nov. 1799–2 Dec. 1855. Blacksmith. Born at Charleston, Montgomery Co., New York. Son of Peter Elliott and Phebe Holley. Married first Almira Holliday of Solon, Cortland Co., New York, ca. 1821. Married second Margery Quick. Lived at Ithaca, Tompkins Co...

View Full Bio
Babet Erastus Babbitt

15 Sept. 1792–6 Feb. 1879. Carpenter. Born at Adams, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joy Babbit and Esther Cook. Private in New York militia, 16 Apr.–30 June 1814; sergeant in New York and Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1 July–30 Oct. 1814. Married first wife...

View Full Bio
49

In an August 1831 revelation, Elliott and Babbitt were told it was “wisdom” that they should “Journey this fall to the land of Zion.” (Revelation, 31 Aug. 1831.)  


Kingsberry and Stebbens. and a brother from Winchester

Platted and established as Randolph Co. seat, 1818. Population in 1837 about 250. Population in 1849 about 750. Branch of LDS church established in town, 1831. Church conference held in town, 29 Nov.–1 Dec. 1831.

More Info
Indiana who is a tanner.— Advise the brethren by all means to Come by land and this thus obey the command of the Lord.—50

The commandment to travel to Zion by land rather than by water was given in an August 1831 revelation, while JS and others were journeying home to Ohio. (Revelation, 12 Aug. 1831 [D&C 61:18].)  


We think that it would be well for the brethren to bring one barrel buck wheat. and one of Clover seed.51

Buckwheat and clover had several uses. According to an 1820 farmer’s almanac, both were important as “vegetable manure.” Turning under a field of either buckwheat or clover greatly enriched the soil; red clover was especially effective in improving wheat yields. Buckwheat could also “mak[e] an agreeable bread” and could be used to feed pigs and other livestock. Clover also provided nourishing hay for horses. (Nicholson, Farmer’s Assistant, 38, 62–64.)  


—— or half a Bbu52

That is, bushel.  


Clover Seed if possible
Ten of our brethren have started to proclaim the Gospel namely. (John Murdock

15 July 1792–23 Dec. 1871. Farmer. Born at Kortright, Delaware Co., New York. Son of John Murdock Sr. and Eleanor Riggs. Joined Lutheran Dutch Church, ca. 1817, then Presbyterian Seceder Church shortly after. Moved to Orange, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, ca. 1819....

View Full Bio
& Lyman Wight

9 May 1796–31 Mar. 1858. Farmer. Born at Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York. Son of Levi Wight Jr. and Sarah Corbin. Served in War of 1812. Married Harriet Benton, 5 Jan. 1823, at Henrietta, Monroe Co., New York. Moved to Warrensville, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
) (Parley Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

View Full Bio
& Levi Hancock

7 Apr. 1803–10 June 1882. Born at Springfield, Hampden Co., Massachusetts. Son of Thomas Hancock III and Amy Ward. Baptized into LDS church, 16 Nov. 1830, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Clarissa Reed, 20 Mar. 1831. Served mission to Missouri with ...

View Full Bio
) these four are going on the south side of the Missouri

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

More Info
to St. Lewis

Located on west side of Mississippi River about fifteen miles south of confluence with Missouri River. Founded as fur-trading post by French settlers, 1764. Incorporated as town, 1809. First Mississippi steamboat docked by town, 1817. Incorporated as city...

More Info
Cincinnati

Area settled largely by emigrants from New England and New Jersey, by 1788. Village founded and surveyed adjacent to site of Fort Washington, 1789. First seat of legislature of Northwest Territory, 1790. Incorporated as city, 1819. Developed rapidly as shipping...

More Info
and Bethany Virginia. (Calvin Bebee

1 July 1800–17 July 1861. Farmer, merchant, postmaster. Born in Paris, Oneida Co., New York. Son of Isaac Beebe and Olive Soule. Moved to Chardon, Geauga Co., Ohio, by 1820. Married Submit Rockwell Starr, 19 Nov. 1823. Baptized into LDS church. Ordained an...

View Full Bio
& Peter Dustin

19 Apr. 1781–after 1860. Farmer, laborer. Born at Goffstown, Hillsborough Co., New Hampshire. Son of John Dustin and Sarah (Sally) Webster. Moved to Alstead, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire, by 1803. Married first Aruba (Azubah) Tubbs, 11 Sept. 1803, at Marlow...

View Full Bio
) through the more settled parts of Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
& Indiana

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
. (Harvey Whitlock

1809–after 1880. Physician. Born in Massachusetts. Married Minerva Abbott, 21 Nov. 1830. Baptized into LDS church, 1831. Ordained an elder, by June 1831. Ordained a high priest, 4 June 1831. Served mission to Jackson Co., Missouri, with David Whitmer, 1831...

View Full Bio
& Zebedee Coltrin

7 Sept. 1804–21 July 1887. Born at Ovid, Seneca Co., New York. Son of John Coltrin and Sarah Graham. Member of Methodist church. Married first Julia Ann Jennings, Oct. 1828. Baptized into LDS church by Solomon Hancock, 9 Jan. 1831, at Strongsville, Cuyahoga...

View Full Bio
) through the north part of Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
& Indiana

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
Michigan

Organized as territory, 1805, with Detroit as capital. De facto state government organized within territory, 1836, although not formally recognized as state by federal government until 1837. Lansing became new state capital, 1847. Population in 1810 about...

More Info
. into Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
. Daniel Cathcart & Joshua Fairchild through the north part of this State

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
through Ill.

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
Indi.

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
to Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
.53

Several of these individuals—Murdock, Wight, Pratt, Hancock, Whitlock, and Coltrin—were told in a June 1831 revelation to travel to Missouri, preaching along the way. Some did not arrive until fall 1831 and apparently decided to stay for a time before returning. An August 1831 revelation indicated that one reason that these individuals, as well as others, were commanded to go to Missouri was so that “the testimony might go forth from Zion yea from the mouth of the City of the heritage of God.” (Revelation, 6 June 1831 [D&C 52]; see, for example, Murdock, Journal, Aug.–Sept. 1831; and Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:13].)  


——
Say to brother Oliver Olney

11 Aug. 1796–ca. 1845. Wool manufacturer, farmer. Born at Eastford, Windham Co., Connecticut. Son of Ezekiel Olney and Lydia Brown. Married first Alice (Elsa) Johnson, daughter of John Johnson and Alice (Elsa) Jacobs, 14 Sept. 1820, at Hiram, Portage Co.,...

View Full Bio
that if he can send a carding machine and clothiers tools54

Beginning in the early industrial era, water-powered carding machines became essential in cloth production, as they “took over the arduous task of preparing wool for hand spinning.” A clothier, according to Webster’s 1828 dictionary, is “a man whose occupation is to full”—meaning to cleanse and thicken—“and dress cloth.” (Ulrich, Age of Homespun, 38; “Clothier,” in American Dictionary [1828].)  


this spring by water we think that it will be well. which can be put in operation as soon as circumstances may permit. Also say to brother Major N. Ashley of Strongsville

Area settled, 1816. Surveyed 1816–1817. Organized 25 Feb. 1818. Population in 1830 about 600. Kirtland high council sent Sidney Rigdon and John P. Greene to visit township, 20 Feb. 1834. Fifteen-member branch of LDS church established in township, by 1835...

More Info
that the Bishop

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
says if he can send the leather55

Ashley was apparently a tanner by trade.  


up to this land as he talked to me last Oct at Confrence

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
in Orange

Located about five miles south of Kirtland Township. Area settled, 1815. Organized 1820. Population in 1830 about 300. Population in 1838 about 800. Sixty-five Latter-day Saints lived in township, by Nov. 1830. Joseph and Julia Murdock, twins adopted by JS...

More Info
it will be of great worth to the Desiples.——
The brethren are generally well and rejoicing in the Lord. The Bishop

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
and all the Elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
with all the brethren send love to the eastern Churches.
I remain your brother in the Lord
Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
.
Joseph Smith Jun.
P.S. We expect soon to be ready to print and hope that brother Martin Harris

18 May 1783–10 July 1875. Farmer. Born at Easton, Albany Co., New York. Son of Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham. Moved with parents to area of Swift’s landing (later in Palmyra), Ontario Co., New York, 1793. Married first his first cousin Lucy Harris, 27 Mar...

View Full Bio
can supply with paper56

A revelation in August 1831 instructed Harris to “be an example unto the church in laying his money before the bishop of the Church” to provide funding for land purchases for the storehouse and for the “house of the Printing.” A revelation in November 1831 appointed Harris—as well as JS, Cowdery, Whitmer, Rigdon, and Phelps—as “stewards over the revelations & commandments.” (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:35–37]; Revelation, 12 Nov. 1831 [D&C 70:3].)  


at present you can tear off the bottom of this sheet which will serve him for a bill you see if ten thousand copies are struck57

A conference of elders held in November 1831 “voted that there be ten thousand copies struck” of the Book of Commandments, a compilation of JS’s revelations. (Minutes, 1–2 Nov. 1831.)  


it will take double the amount of the first mentioned Reams and we feel anxious that it may be so for I think there is no fear of sale O. C.

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
[rest of page cut off] [p. [3]]
For the foregoing reasons we h[a]ve45

TEXT: “h[hole in paper]ve”.  


sent only for mechanics know[i]ng46

TEXT: “know[hole in paper]ng”.  


that others are commanded  to come & believing that others [w]ill47

TEXT: “[Hole in paper]ill”.  


none come without a command48

An August 1831 revelation stated that “in as much as there is lands obtained [in Missouri] let there be workmen sent forth of all kinds unto this land to labour for the saints of God.” This same revelation instructed those wanting to migrate to Missouri to obtain approval from the “Elders of the Church.” In addition, another August 1831 revelation stated that JS would have “power . . . to descern by the spirit those who shall go up unto the land of Zion & those of my Desiples that shall tarry.” However, as Partridge anticipated, some moved to the state without gaining such approval. (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:54, 56]; Revelation, 30 Aug. 1831 [D&C 63:41]; see, for example, Letter to William W. Phelps, 31 July 1832; and Whitmer, History, 30.)  


not knowing but that they may.——
We do not expect that all the mechanics will be found & sent but we have sent for those most needed needed.”——
Among the mechanics sent for it is expected that one blacksmith one shoemaker  and one mason will come in the Church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
from Nelson

Located about nineteen miles southeast of Kirtland Township and immediately east of Hiram Township. Settled by New Englanders, 1800. Population in 1820 about 400. Population in 1830 about 900. Agricultural region producing grass, wheat, and fruit. John Whitmer...

More Info
. and brothers [David] Elliott

18 Nov. 1799–2 Dec. 1855. Blacksmith. Born at Charleston, Montgomery Co., New York. Son of Peter Elliott and Phebe Holley. Married first Almira Holliday of Solon, Cortland Co., New York, ca. 1821. Married second Margery Quick. Lived at Ithaca, Tompkins Co...

View Full Bio
Babet [Erastus Babbitt]

15 Sept. 1792–6 Feb. 1879. Carpenter. Born at Adams, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joy Babbit and Esther Cook. Private in New York militia, 16 Apr.–30 June 1814; sergeant in New York and Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1 July–30 Oct. 1814. Married first wife...

View Full Bio
49

In an August 1831 revelation, Elliott and Babbitt were told it was “wisdom” that they should “Journey this fall to the land of Zion.” (Revelation, 31 Aug. 1831.)  


<Kingsberry> and Stebbens.  and a brother from Winchester

Platted and established as Randolph Co. seat, 1818. Population in 1837 about 250. Population in 1849 about 750. Branch of LDS church established in town, 1831. Church conference held in town, 29 Nov.–1 Dec. 1831.

More Info
Indiana who is a tanner.— Advise the brethren by all means to Come by  land and this [thus] obey the command of the Lord.—50

The commandment to travel to Zion by land rather than by water was given in an August 1831 revelation, while JS and others were journeying home to Ohio. (Revelation, 12 Aug. 1831 [D&C 61:18].)  


We think that it would be well for the brethren to  bring one barrel buck wheat. one and one of Clover seed.51

Buckwheat and clover had several uses. According to an 1820 farmer’s almanac, both were important as “vegetable manure.” Turning under a field of either buckwheat or clover greatly enriched the soil; red clover was especially effective in improving wheat yields. Buckwheat could also “mak[e] an agreeable bread” and could be used to feed pigs and other livestock. Clover also provided nourishing hay for horses. (Nicholson, Farmer’s Assistant, 38, 62–64.)  


—— <or half a Bbu52

That is, bushel.  


Clover Seed if possible
>

Insertion in the handwriting of Sidney Gilbert.  


Ten of our brethren have started to proclaim the Gospel namely. (John Murdock

15 July 1792–23 Dec. 1871. Farmer. Born at Kortright, Delaware Co., New York. Son of John Murdock Sr. and Eleanor Riggs. Joined Lutheran Dutch Church, ca. 1817, then Presbyterian Seceder Church shortly after. Moved to Orange, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, ca. 1819....

View Full Bio
& Lyman Wight

9 May 1796–31 Mar. 1858. Farmer. Born at Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York. Son of Levi Wight Jr. and Sarah Corbin. Served in War of 1812. Married Harriet Benton, 5 Jan. 1823, at Henrietta, Monroe Co., New York. Moved to Warrensville, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, ...

View Full Bio
)  (Parley Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

View Full Bio
& Levi Hancock

7 Apr. 1803–10 June 1882. Born at Springfield, Hampden Co., Massachusetts. Son of Thomas Hancock III and Amy Ward. Baptized into LDS church, 16 Nov. 1830, at Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Clarissa Reed, 20 Mar. 1831. Served mission to Missouri with ...

View Full Bio
) these four are going on the south side of the Missouri

One of longest rivers in North America, in excess of 3,000 miles. From headwaters in Montana to confluence with Mississippi River near St. Louis, Missouri River drains 580,000 square miles (about one-sixth of continental U.S.). Explored by Lewis and Clark...

More Info
to St.  Lewis

Located on west side of Mississippi River about fifteen miles south of confluence with Missouri River. Founded as fur-trading post by French settlers, 1764. Incorporated as town, 1809. First Mississippi steamboat docked by town, 1817. Incorporated as city...

More Info
Cincinnati

Area settled largely by emigrants from New England and New Jersey, by 1788. Village founded and surveyed adjacent to site of Fort Washington, 1789. First seat of legislature of Northwest Territory, 1790. Incorporated as city, 1819. Developed rapidly as shipping...

More Info
and Bethany Virginia. (Calvin Bebee

1 July 1800–17 July 1861. Farmer, merchant, postmaster. Born in Paris, Oneida Co., New York. Son of Isaac Beebe and Olive Soule. Moved to Chardon, Geauga Co., Ohio, by 1820. Married Submit Rockwell Starr, 19 Nov. 1823. Baptized into LDS church. Ordained an...

View Full Bio
& Peter Dustin

19 Apr. 1781–after 1860. Farmer, laborer. Born at Goffstown, Hillsborough Co., New Hampshire. Son of John Dustin and Sarah (Sally) Webster. Moved to Alstead, Cheshire Co., New Hampshire, by 1803. Married first Aruba (Azubah) Tubbs, 11 Sept. 1803, at Marlow...

View Full Bio
) through the  more settled parts of Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
& Indiana

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
. (Harvey Whitlock

1809–after 1880. Physician. Born in Massachusetts. Married Minerva Abbott, 21 Nov. 1830. Baptized into LDS church, 1831. Ordained an elder, by June 1831. Ordained a high priest, 4 June 1831. Served mission to Jackson Co., Missouri, with David Whitmer, 1831...

View Full Bio
& Zebedee Coltrin

7 Sept. 1804–21 July 1887. Born at Ovid, Seneca Co., New York. Son of John Coltrin and Sarah Graham. Member of Methodist church. Married first Julia Ann Jennings, Oct. 1828. Baptized into LDS church by Solomon Hancock, 9 Jan. 1831, at Strongsville, Cuyahoga...

View Full Bio
) through  the north part of Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
& Indiana

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
Michigan

Organized as territory, 1805, with Detroit as capital. De facto state government organized within territory, 1836, although not formally recognized as state by federal government until 1837. Lansing became new state capital, 1847. Population in 1810 about...

More Info
. into Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
. Daniel Cathcart & Joshua  Fairchild through the north part of this State

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
through Ill.

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
Indi.

First settled by French at Vincennes, early 1700s. Acquired by England in French and Indian War, 1763. U.S. took possession of area following American Revolution, 1783. Area became part of Northwest Territory, 1787. Partitioned off of Northwest Territory ...

More Info
to Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
.53

Several of these individuals—Murdock, Wight, Pratt, Hancock, Whitlock, and Coltrin—were told in a June 1831 revelation to travel to Missouri, preaching along the way. Some did not arrive until fall 1831 and apparently decided to stay for a time before returning. An August 1831 revelation indicated that one reason that these individuals, as well as others, were commanded to go to Missouri was so that “the testimony might go forth from Zion yea from the mouth of the City of the heritage of God.” (Revelation, 6 June 1831 [D&C 52]; see, for example, Murdock, Journal, Aug.–Sept. 1831; and Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:13].)  


——
Say to brother Oliver Olney

11 Aug. 1796–ca. 1845. Wool manufacturer, farmer. Born at Eastford, Windham Co., Connecticut. Son of Ezekiel Olney and Lydia Brown. Married first Alice (Elsa) Johnson, daughter of John Johnson and Alice (Elsa) Jacobs, 14 Sept. 1820, at Hiram, Portage Co.,...

View Full Bio
that if he can send a carding machine and clothiers  tools54

Beginning in the early industrial era, water-powered carding machines became essential in cloth production, as they “took over the arduous task of preparing wool for hand spinning.” A clothier, according to Webster’s 1828 dictionary, is “a man whose occupation is to full”—meaning to cleanse and thicken—“and dress cloth.” (Ulrich, Age of Homespun, 38; “Clothier,” in American Dictionary [1828].)  


this spring by water we think that it will be well. even which can be put in operation  as soon as circumstances may permit. Also say to brother [Major N.] Ashley of Strongsville

Area settled, 1816. Surveyed 1816–1817. Organized 25 Feb. 1818. Population in 1830 about 600. Kirtland high council sent Sidney Rigdon and John P. Greene to visit township, 20 Feb. 1834. Fifteen-member branch of LDS church established in township, by 1835...

More Info
that the  Bishop

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
says if he can send the leather55

Ashley was apparently a tanner by trade.  


up to this land as he talk[ed] to me last Oct  at Confrence

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
in Orange

Located about five miles south of Kirtland Township. Area settled, 1815. Organized 1820. Population in 1830 about 300. Population in 1838 about 800. Sixty-five Latter-day Saints lived in township, by Nov. 1830. Joseph and Julia Murdock, twins adopted by JS...

More Info
it will be of great worth to the Desiples.——
The brethren are generally well and rejoicing in the Lord. The Bishop

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
and all the  Elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
with all the brethren send love to the eastern Churches.
I remain your brother in the Lord
Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
.
Joseph Smith Jun.
P.S. We expect soon to be ready to print  and hope that brother Martin [Harris]

18 May 1783–10 July 1875. Farmer. Born at Easton, Albany Co., New York. Son of Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham. Moved with parents to area of Swift’s landing (later in Palmyra), Ontario Co., New York, 1793. Married first his first cousin Lucy Harris, 27 Mar...

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can supply with paper56

A revelation in August 1831 instructed Harris to “be an example unto the church in laying his money before the bishop of the Church” to provide funding for land purchases for the storehouse and for the “house of the Printing.” A revelation in November 1831 appointed Harris—as well as JS, Cowdery, Whitmer, Rigdon, and Phelps—as “stewards over the revelations & commandments.” (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:35–37]; Revelation, 12 Nov. 1831 [D&C 70:3].)  


at present you can tear  off the bottom of this sheet which will serve him for a bill you see if ten thousand  copies is are struck57

A conference of elders held in November 1831 “voted that there be ten thousand copies struck” of the Book of Commandments, a compilation of JS’s revelations. (Minutes, 1–2 Nov. 1831.)  


it will take double the amount of the first mentioned Ream[s]58

TEXT: This part of the page is damaged due to the removal of an adhesive wafer.  


 and we feel anxious that it may be so for I think there is no fear of sale O. C.

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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[rest of page cut off] [p. [3]]
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This 28 January 1832 letter from Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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provided JS with important information about the welfare of the Mormon community in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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. Cowdery and John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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were directed in a November 1831 revelation to travel to Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, Jackson County, Missouri, carrying copies of JS’s revelations, which the church planned to publish.1

Revelation, 11 Nov. 1831–A [D&C 69:1–2].  


They were also instructed to take with them money donated by church members to aid in purchasing land in the Independence area.2

An August 1831 revelation instructed Sidney Rigdon to write “an Epistle & subscription to be presented unto all the Churches to obtain money to be put into the hands of the Bishop to purchase lands for an inheritance for the children of God.” (Revelation, 1 Aug. 1831 [D&C 58:50–51].)  


Departing on 20 November 1831, Cowdery and Whitmer arrived in Independence on 5 January 1832.3

Whitmer, History, 38; Minute Book 2, 23 Jan. 1832.  


On 23–24 January, they held a two-day conference

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

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in the home of Newel Knight

13 Sept. 1800–11 Jan. 1847. Miller, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Knight Sr. and Polly Peck. Moved to Jericho (later Bainbridge), Chenango Co., New York, ca. 1809. Moved to Windsor (later in Colesville), Broome Co., New...

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in Kaw Township

Settlement by whites commenced after treaty with Osage Indians, 1825. One of three original townships organized in Jackson Co., 22 May 1827. Bordered by Missouri River on north side and Big Blue River on east and south sides; western boundary was state line...

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, Missouri; they supplemented it with a special conference on 27 January at Sidney Gilbert

28 Dec. 1789–29 June 1834. Merchant. Born at New Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Eli Gilbert and Lydia Hemingway. Moved to Huntington, Fairfield Co., Connecticut; to Monroe, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, by Sept. 1818; to Painesville, Geauga Co...

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’s residence in Independence. As clerk of the conferences, Cowdery kept the minutes and shortly thereafter copied them into this 28 January letter to JS.4

Cowdery’s minutes in this letter are more expansive than those Ebenezer Robinson later copied into Minute Book 2. It is possible that Whitmer, who kept minutes of several Missouri conferences in 1832, kept his own record of the 23 January meeting. If so, Robinson may have copied Whitmer’s minutes. (See Minute Book 2, 23 Jan. 1832.)  


The minutes highlight the continued development of Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

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in northwestern Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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and the role of leaders such as Edward Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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and Gilbert

28 Dec. 1789–29 June 1834. Merchant. Born at New Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Eli Gilbert and Lydia Hemingway. Moved to Huntington, Fairfield Co., Connecticut; to Monroe, Monroe Co., Michigan Territory, by Sept. 1818; to Painesville, Geauga Co...

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in that development. As bishop

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. JS appointed Edward Partridge as the first bishop in February 1831. Following this appointment, Partridge functioned as the local leader of the church in Missouri. Later revelations described a bishop’s duties as receiving...

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, Partridge was responsible for overseeing the purchase of land in Jackson County in concert with Gilbert, who was an agent to the church in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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. Partridge also had the task of providing Saints with their “inheritance[s]

Generally referred to land promised by or received from God for the church and its members. A January 1831 revelation promised church members a land of inheritance. In March and May 1831, JS dictated revelations commanding members “to purchase lands for an...

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,” and Gilbert was directed by revelation to operate a store

JS revelation, dated 20 July 1831, directed A. Sidney Gilbert, Newel K. Whitney’s Ohio business partner, to establish store in Independence. Gilbert first purchased vacated log courthouse, located on lot 59 at intersection of Lynn and Lexington Streets, to...

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in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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to generate revenues with which to purchase more land and to provision the church members who settled it.5

Revelation, 20 May 1831 [D&C 51:3–4]; Revelation, 8 June 1831 [D&C 53:4]; Revelation, 20 July 1831 [D&C 57:4–8].  


The minutes contain accountings from both Partridge and Gilbert of the moneys expended by them and a report from Partridge on land purchases. The minutes also record discussions concerning plans for schools for the Saints, the need for more skilled craftsmen to come to Missouri, and other subjects. In addition to the minutes, Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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’s letter includes a transcript of a note from Partridge to JS, a few words of general correspondence from Cowdery himself, and a list of projected costs of printing the revelations, which was to be conveyed to Martin Harris

18 May 1783–10 July 1875. Farmer. Born at Easton, Albany Co., New York. Son of Nathan Harris and Rhoda Lapham. Moved with parents to area of Swift’s landing (later in Palmyra), Ontario Co., New York, 1793. Married first his first cousin Lucy Harris, 27 Mar...

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.
Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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’s letter was written to JS, who was living in Hiram

Area settled by immigrants from Pennsylvania and New England, ca. 1802. Located in northeastern Ohio about twenty-five miles southeast of Kirtland. Population in 1830 about 500. Population in 1840 about 1,100. JS lived in township at home of John and Alice...

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, Ohio, but it was sent to Newel K. Whitney

3/5 Feb. 1795–23 Sept. 1850. Trader, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Moved to Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York, 1803. Merchant at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., New York, 1814. Mercantile clerk for...

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in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio, even though there was a post office in Hiram.6

Register of Officers and Agents [1830], 49 (second numbering).  


Cowdery had directed previous correspondence from Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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to Whitney, who served as the postmaster of Kirtland, in part because he believed Whitney’s position allowed Whitney franking privileges, which gave him “the benefits of free postage.”7

Letter from Oliver Cowdery, 8 Apr. 1831. According to the statute governing franking, postmasters could use the privilege for both incoming and outgoing correspondence that was business related and weighed no more than half an ounce. It is unclear, however, whether Whitney ever invoked his franking privilege for letters to or from Cowdery. (An Act to Reduce into One the Several Acts Establishing and Regulating the Post-Office Department [3 Mar. 1825], in Post-Office Laws, Instructions and Forms, 15–16, sec. 27.)  


JS may have obtained the letter when he made a short visit to Kirtland from 29 February to 4 March 1832, or someone from Kirtland could have brought the letter to JS in Hiram before then.8

Note, 8 Mar. 1832. Mail between Independence and Kirtland generally required three to four weeks of travel time. (Hartley, “Letters and Mail between Kirtland and Independence,” 176.)  


Regardless of the method of delivery, it is clear the letter reached Kirtland because in March, several leaders issued charges of misconduct against the Missouri conference based on their reading of Cowdery’s minutes.9 Also, the list of printing costs intended for Harris was cut from the letter, as Cowdery suggested, and presumably given to him.

Facts