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Old Testament Revision 1

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& commanded saying I am the only begotten worship me And it came to pass that Moses began to fear exceedingly & as he began to fear he saw the bitterness of Hell Nevertheless calling upon God he received strength & he commanded saying Depart hence Satan for this one God only will I worship which is the God of glory & now Satan began to tremble & the Earth shook & Moses receiving strength called upon God saying In the name of Jesus Christ depart hence Satan And it came to pass that satan cried with a loud voice with weeping & wailing & gnashing of teeth & departed hence yea from the presence of Moses that he beheld him not And now of this thing Moses bore record but because of wickedness it is not had among the children of men And it came to pass that when Satan had departed from the presence of Moses he lifted up his eyes unto Heaven being filled with the Holy Ghost which beareth record of the Father & the Son & calling upon the name of God he beheld again his glory for it was upon him & he heard a voice saying Blessed art thou Moses for I the Almighty have chosen thee & thou shalt be made stronger than the many waters for they shall obey thy command even as if thou wert God & lo I am with you even to the end of thy days for thou shalt deliver my people from bondage even Israel my chosen And it came to pass as the voice was still speaking he cast his eyes &beheld the Earth yea even all all the face of it & there was not a particle of it which he did not behold diserning it by the Spirit of God & he beheld also the inhabitants thereof & there was not a soul which he beheld not & he discerned them by the Spirit of God & their numbers were great even as numberless as the sand upon the sea shore & he beheld many lands & each land was called Earth & there were inhabitants upon the face there of And it came to pass that Moses called upon God saying tell me I pray thee why these things are so & by what thou madest them & behold the glory of God was upon Moses that Moses stood in the presence of God & he talked with him face to face & the Lord God said unto Moses For mine own purpose have I made these things here is wisdom & it remaineth in me & by the word of my power have I created them which is mine only begotten Son full of grace & truth & worlds without number have I created & I also created them for mine own purpose & by the same I created them which is mine only begotten & the first man of all men have I called Adam which is many but only an account of this Earth & the inhabitants thereof give I unto you for behold there are many worlds which have passed away by the word of my power & there are many also which now stand & numberless are they unto man but all things are numbered unto me for they are mine & I know them And it came to pass that Moses spake unto the Lord saying Be merciful unto thy servant O God & tell me concerning this Earth & the inhabitants thereof & also the Heavens & then thy servant will be content [p. 2]
& comma[n]ded saying I am the only begotten worship me And it came  to pass that Moses began to fear exceedingly & as he began to fear he  saw the bitterness of Hell Nevertheless calling upon God he received stren gth & he commanded saying Depart hence Satan for this one God only  will I worship which is the God of glory & now Satan began to tremble  & the Earth shook & Moses receiving strength called upon God saying  In the name of Jesus Christ depart hence Satan And it came to pass that  satan cried with a loud voice with weeping & wailing & gnashing of teeth  & departed hence yea from the presence of Moses that he beheld him not  And now of this thing Moses bore record but because of wickedness it is  not had among the children of men And it came to pass that when  Satan had departed from the presence of Moses he lifted up his  eyes unto Heaven being filled with the Holy Ghost which beareth  record of the Father & the Son & calling upon the name of God he beheld  again his glory for it was upon him & he heard a voice saying Blessed  art thou Moses for I the Almighty have chosen thee & thou shalt  be made stronger than the many waters for they shall obey thy command  even as if thou wert God & lo I am with you even to the end of thy days  for thou shalt deliver my people from bondage even Israel my chose[n]  And it came to pass as the voice was still speaking he cast his eyes & beheld the Earth yea even all all the face of it & there was not a particl[e]  of it which he did not behold diserning it by the Spirit of God & he be held also the inhabitants thereof & there was not a soul which he be[held]  not & he discerned them by the Spirit of God & their numbers were grea[t]  even as numberless as the sand upon the sea shore & he beheld many lands  & each land was called Earth & there were inhabitants upon the face there  of And it came to pass that Moses called upon God saying tell me I pray  thee why these things are so & by what thou madest them & behold the glory  of God was upon Moses that Moses stood in the presence of God & he talk[ed]  with him face to face & the Lord God said unto Moses For mine own  purpose have I made these things here is wisdom & it remaineth in me  & by the word of my power have I created them which is mine only be gotten Son full of grace & truth & worlds without number have I cre ated & I also created them for mine own purpose & by the same I  created them which is mine only begotten & the first man of all men  have I called Adam which is many but only an account of this  Earth & the inhabitants thereof give I unto you for behold there are  many worlds which have passed away by the word of my power &  there are many also which now stand & numberless are they unto man bu[t]  all things are numbered unto me for they are mine & I know them  And it came to pass that Moses spake unto the Lord saying Be merciful  [u]nto thy servant O God & tell me concerning this Earth & the inhabitan[ts]  [th]ereof & also the H[eavens] & then thy servant will be content [p. 2]
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In June 1830, only weeks after the Book of Mormon was published (in March) and the Church of Christ organized (in April), JS began dictating to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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a revelation dealing with several key Old Testament figures. The revelation opens with “the words of God which he spake unto Moses,” a visionary experience in which Moses receives a knowledge of God and his Only Begotten and learns the purpose of creation. He sees the spirit creation of all things, the appointment of Christ during a premortal council, the effects of the Fall, and the introduction of the gospel to fallen mankind. Moses understands the place of man in the divine plan and foresees his own future role. The manuscript continues with the story of Adam and Eve and several generations of their descendants. A detailed exposition of the experiences of Enoch is included, even though the biblical account contains only a brief mention of that ancient prophet. The manuscript records Enoch’s prophecies of the coming of the Son of Man and recounts the ministry of Noah and the life of Abraham.
Like many other revelations, this manuscript bears a simple heading. Written in the hand of scribe Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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, the heading reads, “A Revelation given to Joseph the Revelator June 1830.” What prompted this revelation when JS first began dictating in June 1830 is unknown, but the resulting lengthy manuscript opened an ambitious project of biblical expansion and revision. After the vision of Moses, which recounts a conversation with Deity unrelated to known biblical texts, on the third page and under a new heading (“A Revelation given to the Elders of the Church of Christ On the First Book of Moses”) the manuscript begins an account of the Creation that resembles Genesis 1. The lengthy opening vision and some portions later in the manuscript record prophetic experience at best hinted at in biblical texts, but as the transcript unfolded over the next several months, it became a commentary on and often an expansion of the King James Version of Genesis.
At some point during the creation of this manuscript, JS came to see such “restoration” of lost biblical texts as part of his prophetic mission. Book of Mormon passages he dictated to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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in 1829 spoke of “plain and precious things” missing from “the Book, which is the Book of the Lamb of God” and promised that these “plain and most precious parts of the Gospel of the Lamb” would be restored. (Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 30–31 [1 Nephi 13:28, 32].) On the third page of this manuscript, just before the beginning of the creation account, this revelation similarly declares that lost scriptural passages “shall be had again among the Children of men.” An early December 1830 revelation was explicit. After affirming that JS had been given keys to unlock ancient knowledge, the revelation addressed Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, commanding “that thou shalt write for [JS] and the scriptures shall be given even as they are in mine own bosom.” (Revelation, 7 Dec. 1830, in Doctrine and Covenants 11:5, 1835 ed. [D&C 35:20].)
This manuscript was begun at a time when JS and his religious associates in the Susquehanna valley of northern Pennsylvania

Area first settled by Swedish immigrants, 1628. William Penn received grant for territory from King Charles II, 1681, and established British settlement, 1682. Philadelphia was center of government for original thirteen U.S. colonies from time of Revolutionary...

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(JS resided in Harmony

Located in northeastern Pennsylvania. Area settled, by 1787. Organized 1809. Population in 1830 about 340. Population in 1840 about 520. Contained Harmony village (no longer in existence). Josiah Stowell hired JS to help look for treasure in area, Oct. 1825...

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) and southern New York

Located in northeast region of U.S. Area settled by Dutch traders, 1620s; later governed by Britain, 1664–1776. Admitted to U.S. as state, 1788. Population in 1810 about 1,000,000; in 1820 about 1,400,000; in 1830 about 1,900,000; and in 1840 about 2,400,...

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(a number of followers lived in nearby Colesville

Area settled, beginning 1785. Formed from Windsor Township, Apr. 1821. Population in 1830 about 2,400. Villages within township included Harpursville, Nineveh, and Colesville. Susquehanna River ran through eastern portion of township. JS worked for Joseph...

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) faced intense opposition from both neighbors and civil authorities. Despite such pressures, JS and Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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may have begun this manuscript in Harmony, but in part to escape harassment later in June they moved north to Fayette Township

Located in northern part of county between Seneca and Cayuga lakes. Area settled, by 1790. Officially organized as Washington Township, 14 Mar. 1800. Name changed to Fayette, 6 Apr. 1808. Population in 1830 about 3,200. Population in 1840 about 3,700. Significant...

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, New York, a more hospitable environment. When Cowdery departed Fayette in early fall 1830 for a mission to the West, he had he written nine manuscript pages from JS’s dictation. His replacement as scribe, John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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, inscribed seventeen lines under the date of 21 October 1830, and then another page and a half under the date of 30 November 1830. The next day Emma Smith

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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began writing and inscribed two pages under the date of 1 December 1830. After his early December arrival, Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, an educated new convert from Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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, became the main scribe (as commanded in the revelation already noted). Most of the remainder of the sixty-page manuscript is in his hand.
A January 1831 move to Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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interrupted progress on what was now clearly a work of biblical revision, but JS and Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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resumed work in February and finished this manuscript in March. After John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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made a second copy of the completed manuscript, he documented his work by inserting a final date at the end of this copy: “April 5th 1831 transcribed thus far.” This original manuscript was then retired and JS and Rigdon continued the ambitious Bible revision using Whitmer’s copy. Bible revision remained an important concern of JS into 1833.
Note: The transcript of Old Testament Revision 1 presented here is used with generous permission of the Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center. It was published earlier, with some differences in style, in Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds., Joseph Smith's New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004), 75–152.

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