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Revelation, 3 November 1831 [D&C 133]

darkness where there is weeping & wailing & gnashing of theeth48

See Matthew 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; and Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 334–335 [Alma 40:13].  


Behold the Lord your God hath spoken it Amen
Given In Hiram

Area settled by immigrants from Pennsylvania and New England, ca. 1802. Located in northeastern Ohio about twenty-five miles southeast of Kirtland. Population in 1830 about 500. Population in 1840 about 1,100. JS lived in township at home of John and Alice...

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Portage Co Ohio
Novembr 3rd. 1831 [p. 121]
darkness where there is weeping & wailing & gnash ing of theeth48

See Matthew 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; and Book of Mormon, 1830 ed., 334–335 [Alma 40:13].  


Behold the Lord your God hath spoken  it Amen
Given In Hiram

Area settled by immigrants from Pennsylvania and New England, ca. 1802. Located in northeastern Ohio about twenty-five miles southeast of Kirtland. Population in 1830 about 500. Population in 1840 about 1,100. JS lived in township at home of John and Alice...

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Portage Co Ohio
Novembr 3rd. 1831 [p. 121]
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According to a later history, JS dictated this revelation on 3 November 1831 in answer to elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

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’ questions about “the gathering

As directed by early revelations, church members “gathered” in communities. A revelation dated September 1830, for instance, instructed elders “to bring to pass the gathering of mine elect” who would “be gathered in unto one place, upon the face of this land...

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” and “preaching the gospel to the inhabitants of the earth.”1

JS History, vol. A-1, 166.  


The history indicates that this revelation was dictated following the two-day conference

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

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in Hiram

Area settled by immigrants from Pennsylvania and New England, ca. 1802. Located in northeastern Ohio about twenty-five miles southeast of Kirtland. Population in 1830 about 500. Population in 1840 about 1,100. JS lived in township at home of John and Alice...

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, Ohio, which focused on the publication of JS’s revelations in the Book of Commandments. This revelation, which was later designated as the “appendix” to the Book of Commandments, followed the 1 November dictation of the “preface” to that book.2

JS History, vol. A-1, 166; Minutes, 1–2 Nov. 1831.  


The preface placed JS’s revelations in a millenarian context, and this 3 November revelation continued in that millenarian theme.3 Beginning with a call for the Saints to prepare for the second coming of Jesus Christ by leaving Babylon and gathering to Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

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, the revelation then extended this message to all people. It warned of Christ’s imminent return to the earth in power and glory and of the events that would precede and accompany that return. It also provided an explicit statement that God wanted JS’s revelations to go to the world to prepare the inhabitants of the earth for Christ’s return.
Because two early copies of this revelation bear different dates, there is some uncertainty about the exact date of this revelation. When John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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copied it into Revelation Book 1, likely before leaving for Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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on 20 November 1831, he dated it 3 November.4

Whitmer, History, 38.  


JS’s later history also places this revelation after the 1–2 November conference.5

JS History, vol. A-1, 166.  


However, another copy of the revelation in Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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’s handwriting was inserted into Revelation Book 1 as a loose copy, bearing the endorsement “Luke Johnson

3 Nov. 1807–8 Dec. 1861. Farmer, teacher, doctor. Born at Pomfret, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of John Johnson and Alice (Elsa) Jacobs. Lived at Hiram, Portage Co., Ohio, when baptized into LDS church by JS, 10 May 1831. Ordained a priest by Christian Whitmer...

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s Nov 2 1831” in unidentified handwriting, suggesting it may have been written during the 1–2 November conference, which Johnson attended.6

Revelation, 3 Nov. 1831, [5], in JSP, MRB:403 [D&C 133]. The date of the revelation’s dictation is also given as 2 November at another location in this document, although an unknown scribe later changed that date to 3 November.  


Because Rigdon transcribed this copy on loose leaves, it is difficult to determine exactly when the copy was made. It may have been placed into Revelation Book 1 before Whitmer left for Missouri, but it could have been inserted much later as well.7 Whitmer, on the other hand, likely copied the revelation into the bound book before Whitmer and Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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took the book to Missouri on 20 November 1831.8

Historical Introduction to Revelation Book 1; Whitmer, History, 38.  


Whitmer’s copy is apparently an earlier transcript than the Rigdon copy and therefore more reliable regarding the date—a conclusion corroborated by the fact that the 1–2 November conference minutes do not mention this revelation, and no other sources confirm its presentation on either 1 or 2 November.9
Although the 3 November revelation does not refer to itself as an “appendix,” it may have been dictated specifically to serve as an appendix to JS’s revelations—much like the 1 November revelation was presented as the preface. The Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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copy contains the endorsement “An appendix to Revelation,” suggesting an early designation of the revelation as an appendix. When the revelation was first published in the May 1833 issue of The Evening and the Morning Star, William W. Phelps

17 Feb. 1792–7 Mar. 1872. Writer, teacher, printer, newspaper editor, publisher, postmaster, lawyer. Born at Hanover, Morris Co., New Jersey. Son of Enon Phelps and Mehitabel Goldsmith. Moved to Homer, Cortland Co., New York, 1800. Married Sally Waterman,...

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explained that it was known as “the close” or “the Appendix,” indicating it had received that designation at least by the spring 1833.10

Revelations,” The Evening and the Morning Star, May 1833, [1]; Appendix 1: Revelation, 3 Nov. 1831, [6], in JSP, MRB:405 [D&C 133].  


According to a later JS history, it was called the appendix because of “its importance, and for distinction.”11

JS History, vol. A-1, 166. The revelation was never published in the Book of Commandments, probably because it was to be one of the last items printed and the printing of the book was halted by violence in Missouri. The revelation was labeled as the appendix in the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants. (See “Proposed Sixth Gathering of the Book of Commandments;Doctrine and Covenants 100, 1835 ed., 247–250.)  


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