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Revelations printed in Evening and Morning Star, January 1835–June 1836

Revelations printed in Evening and Morning Star, January 1835–June 1836

the kingdom of God. And we know that justification through the grace of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is just and true: and we know, also, that sanctification through the grace of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is just and true, to all those who love and serve God with all their mights, minds, and strength; but there is a possibility that man may fall from grace and depart from the living God. Therefore let the church take heed and pray always, lest they fall into temptations; yea, and even let those who are sanctified, take heed also. And we know that these things are true and according to the revelations of John, neither adding to, nor diminishing from the prophecy of his book, the holy scriptures

The sacred, written word of God containing the “mind & will of the Lord” and “matters of divine revelation.” Members of the church considered the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and JS’s revelations to be scripture. Revelations in 1830 and 1831 directed JS to ...

View Glossary
, or the revelations of God which shall come hereafter by the gift and power of the Holy Ghost

A right or privilege bestowed through the confirmation ordinance. Individuals were confirmed members of the church and received the gift of the Holy Ghost through the laying on of hands. The Book of Mormon explained that remission of sins requires not only...

View Glossary
, the voice of God, or the ministering of angels

Being who acts as a minister and messenger between heaven and earth. JS taught that angels were individuals who “belonged to this earth”; those who had already lived on earth were often resurrected beings. In addition to giving instruction, direction, and...

View Glossary
: and the Lord God has spoken it; and honor, power, and glory, be rendered to his holy name, both now and ever. Amen.
And again by way of commandment

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
to the church concerning the manner of baptism

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
.
All those who humble themselves before God and desire to be baptized, and come forth with broken hearts and contrite spirits, and witness before the church that they have truly repented of all their sins and are willing to take upon them the name of Jesus Christ, having a determination to serve him to the end, and truly manifest by their works that they have received of the Spirit of Christ unto the remission of their sins, shall be received by baptism into his church.
The duty of the elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
, priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. In the Book of Mormon, priests were described as those who baptized, administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto the church,” and taught “the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.” A June 1829 revelation directed...

View Glossary
, teachers

Generally, one who instructs, but also an ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The Book of Mormon explained that teachers were to be ordained “to preach repentance and remission of sins through Jesus Christ, by the endurance of faith on his name to the end...

View Glossary
, deacons

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The “Articles and Covenants” directed deacons to assist teachers in their duties. Deacons were also to “warn, expound, exhort, and teach and invite all to come unto Christ.” Although deacons did not have the authority...

View Glossary
, and members of the church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
.
An apostle

A title indicating one sent forth to preach; later designated as a specific ecclesiastical and priesthood office. By 1830, JS and Oliver Cowdery were designated as apostles. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church explained that an “apostle is an elder...

View Glossary
is an elder, and it is his calling to baptize, and to ordain

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

View Glossary
other elders, priests, teachers, and deacons, and to administer bread and wine

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

View Glossary
—the emblems of the flesh and blood of Christ—and to confirm

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
those who are baptized into the church, by the laying on of hands for the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost, according to the scriptures; and to teach, expound, exhort, baptize, and watch over the church; and to confirm the church by the laying on of the hands, and the giving of the Holy Ghost—and to take the lead of all meetings.
The elders are to conduct the meetings as they are led by the Holy Ghost, according to the commandments and revelations of God.
The priest’s duty is to preach, teach, expound, exhort, and baptize, and administer the sacrament, and visit the house of each member, and exhort them to pray vocally and in secret, and attend to all family duties: and he may also ordain other priests, teachers, and deacons—and he is to take the lead of meetings when there is no elder present, but when there is an elder present he is only to preach, teach, expound, exhort, and baptize, and visit the house of each member, exhorting them to pray vocally and in secret, and attend to all family duties. In all these duties the priest is to assist the elder if occasion requires.
The teacher’s duty is to watch over the church always, and be with, and strengthen them, and see that there is no iniquity in the church, neither hardness with each other; neither lying, backbiting, nor evil speaking; and see that the church meet together often, and also see that all members do their duty—and he is to take the lead of meetings in the abscence of the elder or priest—and is to be assisted always, in all his duties in the church, by the deacons, if occasion requires: but neither teachers nor deacons have authority to baptize, administer the sacrament, or lay on hands

A practice in which individuals place their hands upon a person to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost, ordain to an office or calling, or confer other power, authority, or blessings, often as part of an ordinance. The Book of Mormon explained that ecclesiastical...

View Glossary
; they are however to warn, expound, exhort, and teach, and invite all to come unto Christ.
Every elder, priest, teacher, or deacon, is to be ordained according to the gifts and callings of God unto him: and he is to be ordained by the power of the Holy Ghost which is in the one who ordains him.
The several elders composing this church of Christ are to meet in conference

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
once in three months, or from time to time, as said conferences shall direct or appoint: and said conferences are to do whatever church business is necessary to be done at the time.
The elders are to receive their liscences

A document certifying an individual’s office in the church and authorizing him “to perform the duty of his calling.” The “Articles and Covenants” of the church implied that only elders could issue licenses; individuals ordained by a priest to an office in...

View Glossary
from other elders by vote of the church to which they belong, or from the conferences.
Each priest, teacher, or deacon, who is ordained by a priest, may take a cirtificate from him at the time, which cirtificate when presented to an elder, shall entitle him to a license, which shall authorize him to perform the du [p. 3]
the kingdom of God. And we know  that justification through the grace of  our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is  just and true: and we know, also, that  sanctification through the grace of our  Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, is just  and true, to all those who love and  serve God with all their mights, minds,  and strength; but there is a possibility  that man may fall from grace and de part from the living God. Therefore  let the church take heed and pray al ways, lest they fall into temptations;  yea, and even let those who are sancti fied, take heed also. And we know  that these things are true and according  to the revelations of John, neither add ing to, nor diminishing from the proph ecy of his book, the holy scriptures

The sacred, written word of God containing the “mind & will of the Lord” and “matters of divine revelation.” Members of the church considered the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and JS’s revelations to be scripture. Revelations in 1830 and 1831 directed JS to ...

View Glossary
, or  the revelations of God which shall  come hereafter by the gift and power  of the Holy Ghost

A right or privilege bestowed through the confirmation ordinance. Individuals were confirmed members of the church and received the gift of the Holy Ghost through the laying on of hands. The Book of Mormon explained that remission of sins requires not only...

View Glossary
, the voice of God,  or the ministering of angels

Being who acts as a minister and messenger between heaven and earth. JS taught that angels were individuals who “belonged to this earth”; those who had already lived on earth were often resurrected beings. In addition to giving instruction, direction, and...

View Glossary
: and the  Lord God has spoken it; and honor,  power, and glory, be rendered to his  holy name, both now and ever. Amen.
And again by way of commandment

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
 to the church concerning the manner of  baptism

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
.
All those who humble themselves  before God and desire to be baptized,  and come forth with broken hearts and  contrite spirits, and witness before the  church that they have truly repented of  all their sins and are willing to take  upon them the name of Jesus Christ,  having a determination to serve him to  the end, and truly manifest by their  works that they have received of the  Spirit of Christ unto the remission of  their sins, shall be received by baptism  into his church.
The duty of the elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
, priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. In the Book of Mormon, priests were described as those who baptized, administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto the church,” and taught “the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.” A June 1829 revelation directed...

View Glossary
, teach ers

Generally, one who instructs, but also an ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The Book of Mormon explained that teachers were to be ordained “to preach repentance and remission of sins through Jesus Christ, by the endurance of faith on his name to the end...

View Glossary
, deacons

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The “Articles and Covenants” directed deacons to assist teachers in their duties. Deacons were also to “warn, expound, exhort, and teach and invite all to come unto Christ.” Although deacons did not have the authority...

View Glossary
, and members of the church  of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
.
An apostle

A title indicating one sent forth to preach; later designated as a specific ecclesiastical and priesthood office. By 1830, JS and Oliver Cowdery were designated as apostles. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church explained that an “apostle is an elder...

View Glossary
is an elder, and it is his  calling to baptize, and to ordain

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

View Glossary
other  elders, priests, teachers, and deacons,  and to administer bread and wine

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

View Glossary
—the  emblems of the flesh and blood of  Christ—and to confirm

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
those who are  baptized into the church, by the laying  on of hands for the baptism of fire and  the Holy Ghost, according to the scrip tures; and to teach, expound, exhort,  baptize, and watch over the church;  and to confirm the church by the laying  on of the hands, and the giving of the  Holy Ghost—and to take the lead of  all meetings.
The elders are to conduct the meet ings as they are led by the Holy Ghost,  according to the commandments and  revelations of God.
The priest’s duty is to preach, teach,  expound, exhort, and baptize, and ad minister the sacrament, and visit the  house of each member, and exhort  them to pray vocally and in secret,  and attend to all family duties: and he  may also ordain other priests, teachers,  and deacons—and he is to take the lead  of meetings when there is no elder  present, but when there is an elder  present he is only to preach, teach, ex pound, exhort, and baptize, and visit  the house of each member, exhorting  them to pray vocally and in secret, and  attend to all family duties. In all these  duties the priest is to assist the elder if  occasion requires.
The teacher’s duty is to watch over  the church always, and be with, and  strengthen them, and see that there is  no iniquity in the church, neither hard ness with each other; neither lying,  backbiting, nor evil speaking; and see  that the church meet together often, and  also see that all members do their  duty—and he is to take the lead of mee tings in the abscence of the elder or  priest—and is to be assisted always, in  all his duties in the church, by the dea cons, if occasion requires: but neither  teachers nor deacons have authority to  baptize, administer the sacrament, or  lay on hands

A practice in which individuals place their hands upon a person to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost, ordain to an office or calling, or confer other power, authority, or blessings, often as part of an ordinance. The Book of Mormon explained that ecclesiastical...

View Glossary
; they are however to  warn, expound, exhort, and teach, and  invite all to come unto Christ.
Every elder, priest, teacher, or dea con, is to be ordained according to the  gifts and callings of God unto him: and  he is to be ordained by the power of  the Holy Ghost which is in the one  who ordains him.
The several elders composing this  church of Christ are to meet in confer ence

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
once in three months, or from  time to time, as said conferences shall  direct or appoint: and said conferences  are to do whatever church business is  necessary to be done at the time.
The elders are to receive their liscen ces

A document certifying an individual’s office in the church and authorizing him “to perform the duty of his calling.” The “Articles and Covenants” of the church implied that only elders could issue licenses; individuals ordained by a priest to an office in...

View Glossary
from other elders by vote of the  church to which they belong, or from  the conferences.
Each priest, teacher, or deacon, who  is ordained by a priest, may take a cir tificate from him at the time, which cir tificate when presented to an elder,  shall entitle him to a license, which  shall authorize him to perform the du [p. 3]
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In December 1833, six months after the printing office

JS revelations, dated 20 July and 1 Aug. 1831, directed establishment of LDS church’s first printing office in Independence, Missouri. Dedicated by Bishop Edward Partridge, 29 May 1832. Located on Lot 76, on Liberty Street just south of courthouse square....

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in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, Missouri, was destroyed

20 Jul. 1833

Vigilantes, demanding removal of Latter-day Saints from Jackson County, Missouri, destroyed printing office and tarred and feathered Edward Partridge and Charles Allen, Independence, Jackson County, Missouri; a few dozen copies of unfinished Book of Commandments...

and publication efforts there were permanently halted, printing commenced on a newly acquired press in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio. That press, operated by F. G. Williams & Co.

After the destruction of the church printing office in Missouri in 1833, the United Firm formed F. G. Williams & Co. as a commercial entity in Kirtland, Ohio, with publishing as its primary purpose. Following the dissolution of the United Firm in 1834, F....

View Glossary
, continued printing The Evening and the Morning Star, the newspaper begun in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, through September 1834. The September 1834 issue of that paper contained a prospectus announcing that the paper’s two volumes would be reprinted.1

“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.  


The first issue of the reprinted newspaper, which appeared under the slightly modified title Evening and Morning Star, was published in January 1835.2

The title that appears in the newspaper’s nameplate was likely shortened because of a reduction in the newspaper’s size. The longer original title, The Evening and the Morning Star, is printed at the middle and end of each issue with other publication information. For the sake of clarity, the reprinted paper is referred to by its shortened title for all references in The Joseph Smith Papers.  


Though touted as a reprint that would correct typographical and other errors,3

“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.  


Evening and Morning Star actually contained significant changes to the revelation texts. In the first issue, editor Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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explained the revisions he was making in the reprinted versions of the revelations:
On the revelations we merely say, that we were not a little surprised to find the previous print so different from the original. We have given them a careful comparison, assisted by individuals whose known integrity and ability is uncensurable. Thus saying we cast no reflections upon those who were entrusted with the responsibility of publishing them in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, as our own labors were included in that important service to the church, and it was our unceasing endeavor to have them correspond with the copy furnished us. We believe they are now correct. If not in every word, at least in principle.4

Notice, Evening and Morning Star, June 1832 (Jan. 1835), 16. The prospectus to Evening and Morning Star also states “that in the first 14 numbers, in the Revelations, are many errors, typographical, and others, occasioned by transcribing manuscript; but as we shall have access to originals, we shall endeavor to make proper corrections.” (“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.)  


Despite the implications of Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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’s statement, very few of the changes in the reprint represent a restoration back to the earliest text, though Cowdery consulted early manuscript sources when reprinting some of the revelations.5

On 4 February 1835, Cowdery wrote to Newel K. Whitney requesting that the latter send “the original copy of the Revelation given to 12 elders Feb. 1831 called ‘The Law of the Church.’” Cowdery explained, “We are preparing the old Star for re-printing, and have no copy from which to correct, and kno[w] of no other beside yours.” (Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to Newel K. Whitney, 4 Feb. 1835, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.)  


Because the revelations were meant to be used as a guide for the current operations of the church, they were edited in 1835 to reflect current organization, doctrine, and practice, which had continued to develop since the revelations were first dictated. For example, the version of a 9 February 1831 revelation printed in Evening and Morning Star includes discussion of the duties of elders, priests, teachers, bishops, high priests, and the high council.6

Revelation, 9 Feb. 1831, in “Extract of Covenants for the Church of the Latter Day Saints,” Evening and Morning Star, July 1832 (Feb. 1835), 30–31 [D&C 42].  


Early versions of the revelation, however, make no mention of the office of high priest, which did not exist until June 1831,7

See Minute Book 2, 3 June 1831.  


or of the high council, a body that was not organized until February 1834.8

Minute Book 1, 17 Feb. 1834; see also Minutes, 17 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 5, 1835 ed. [D&C 102].  


The revelation was revised in 1835 to reflect these additional roles. Most of the changes made to revelations in the early issues of Evening and Morning Star are also reflected in the same revelations as published in the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants (1835), and the editing work on that volume, in turn, influenced the presentation of revelations in later issues of Evening and Morning Star.9

For example, the updates made in Revelation, 9 February 1831, for publication in Evening and Morning Star were then introduced into Doctrine and Covenants 13:8, 10, 19, 1835 ed. [D&C 42:31, 34, 71].  


The table that follows lists each of the revelatory items printed in the Star and its reprint, along with its bibliographic information. See Revelations Printed in The Evening and the Morning Star for a side-by-side comparison of the revelations printed in the Star and its reprint.
Key to column titles
Vol:Issue:Volume and issue number
Star Print Date:Month in which the item was printed in The Evening and the Morning Star
Star Pages:Pages on which the item was printed in The Evening and the Morning Star
Reprint Print Date:Month in which the item was printed in Evening and Morning Star
Reprint Pages:Pages on which the item was printed in Evening and Morning Star
Date:Date of item, followed by section number in Doctrine and Covenants, 1981 edition, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Vol: IssueStar Print DateStar PagesReprint Print DateReprint PagesDate
1:1June 1832[1]Jan. 18352–410 Apr. 1830 [D&C 20]
1:1June 1832[1]–[2]16 Apr. 1830 [D&C 22]
1:1June 1832[2]Jan. 18355–6ca. 7 Mar. 1831 [D&C 45:1–67, 71]
1:2July 1832[1]Feb. 183530–319 and 23 Feb. 1831 [D&C 42:11–77]
1:2July 1832[1]Feb. 183526–277 Aug. 1831 [D&C 59]
1:2July 1832[2]–[3]Feb. 183527–3016 Feb. 1832 [D&C 76]
1:3Aug. 1832[1]Mar. 183542–43ca. 8 Mar. 1831–A [D&C 46]
1:3Aug. 1832[1]Mar. 183543–449 May 1831 [D&C 50]
1:4Sept. 1832[2]Apr. 183560–62Sept. 1830–A [D&C 29]
1:4Sept. 1832[2]Apr. 18356230 Oct. 1831 [D&C 65]
1:5Oct. 1832[2]June 18357423 Feb. 1831 [D&C 42:78-93]
1:5Oct. 1832[2]–[3]June 183574Feb. 1831–A [D&C 43:15–35]
1:5Oct. 1832[3]June 183573–741 Nov. 1831–A [D&C 68]
1:6Nov. 1832[7]Sept. 183593–947 May 1831 [D&C 49]
1:7Dec. 1832[5]Apr. 1836105–10612 Aug. 1831 [D&C 61]
1:7Dec. 1832[5]–[6]Apr. 1836106–1074 Dec. 1831 [D&C 72]
1:8Jan. 1833[5]–[6]Apr. 1836125–1262 Jan. 1831 [D&C 38]
1:8Jan. 1833[6]Apr. 183612630 Apr. 1832 [D&C 83]
1:9Feb. 1833[5]May 183613827–28 Dec. 1832 [D&C 88:117–126]
1:9Feb. 1833[6]–[7]May 1836140–14130 Aug. 1831 [D&C 63:1–64]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836155ca. Aug. 1830 [D&C 27]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836155–1561 Nov. 1831–B [D&C 1]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836156–1573 Jan. 1833 [D&C 88:127–137]
1:12May 1833[1]–[2]June 1836177–1793 Nov. 1831 [D&C 133]
2:13June 183397–98June 1836193–19610 Apr. 1830 [D&C 20]

Facts