53993132

Revelations printed in Evening and Morning Star, January 1835–June 1836

Revelations printed in Evening and Morning Star, January 1835–June 1836

ties of his calling—or he may receive it from a conference

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
.
No person is to be ordained

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

View Glossary
to any office in this church, where there is a regularly organized branch of the same, without the vote of that church; but the presiding elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
, travelling bishops

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. JS appointed Edward Partridge as the first bishop in February 1831. Following this appointment, Partridge functioned as the local leader of the church in Missouri. Later revelations described a bishop’s duties as receiving...

View Glossary
, high counsellors

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

View Glossary
, high priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. Christ and many ancient prophets, including Abraham, were described as being high priests. The Book of Mormon used the term high priest to denote one appointed to lead the church. However, the Book of Mormon also discussed...

View Glossary
, and elders, may have the privilege of ordaining, where there is no branch of the church, that a vote may be called.
Every president of the high priesthood

Both the office of the president of the high priesthood and the body comprising the president and his counselors; the presiding body of the church. In November 1831, a revelation directed the appointment of a president of the high priesthood. The individual...

View Glossary
, (or presiding elder,) bishop, high counsellor, and high priest, is to be ordained by the direction of a high counsel, or general conference.
The duty of the members after they are received by baptism

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
:
The elders or priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. In the Book of Mormon, priests were described as those who baptized, administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto the church,” and taught “the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.” A June 1829 revelation directed...

View Glossary
are to have a sufficient time to expound all things concerning the church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
to their understanding, previous to their partaking of the sacrament

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

View Glossary
, and being confirmed

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
by the laying on of the hands

A practice in which individuals place their hands upon a person to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost, ordain to an office or calling, or confer other power, authority, or blessings, often as part of an ordinance. The Book of Mormon explained that ecclesiastical...

View Glossary
of the elders; so that all things may be done in order. And the members shall manifest before the church and also before the elders, by a godly walk and conversation, that they are worthy of it, that there may be works and faith agreeable to the holy scriptures

The sacred, written word of God containing the “mind & will of the Lord” and “matters of divine revelation.” Members of the church considered the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and JS’s revelations to be scripture. Revelations in 1830 and 1831 directed JS to ...

View Glossary
—walking in holiness before the Lord.
Every member of the church of Christ having children, is to bring them unto the elders before the church, who are to lay their hands upon them in the name of Jesus Christ, and bless them in his name.
No one can be received into the church of Christ unless he has arrived unto the years of accountability before God, and is capable of repentance.
Baptism is to be administered in the following manner unto all those who repent: The person who is called of God and has authority from Jesus Christ to baptize, shall go down into the water with the person who has presented him, or herself for baptism, and shall say, calling him or her by name: Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. Then shall he immerse him or her in the water, and come forth again out of the water.
It is expedient that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord Jesus: and the elder or priests shall administer it: and after this manner shall he administer it: he shall kneel with the church and call upon the Father in solemn prayer, saying, O God, the eternal Father, we ask thee in the name of thy Son Jesus Christ to bless and sanctify this bread to the souls of all those who partake of it, that they may eat in remembrance of the body of thy Son, and witness unto thee O God, the eternal Father, that they are willing to take upon them the name of thy Son, and always remember him and keep his commandments

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
which he has given them, that they may always have his Spirit to be with them. Amen.
The manner of administering the wine: He shall take the cup also, and say, O God, the eternal Father, we ask thee in the name of thy Son Jesus Christ, to bless and sanctify this wine to the souls of all those who drink of it, that they may do it in remembrance of the blood of thy Son which was shed for them, that they may witness unto thee, O God, the eternal Father, that they do always remember him, that they may have his Spirit to be with them. Amen.
Any member of the church of Christ transgressing, or being overtaken in a fault, shall be dealt with as the scriptures direct.
It shall be the duty of the several churches composing the church of Christ, to send one or more of their teachers

Generally, one who instructs, but also an ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The Book of Mormon explained that teachers were to be ordained “to preach repentance and remission of sins through Jesus Christ, by the endurance of faith on his name to the end...

View Glossary
to attend the several conferences, held by the elders of the church, with a list of the names of the several members uniting themselves with the church since the last conference, or send by the hand of some priest, so that a regular list of all the names of the whole church may be kept in a book, by one of the elders, whoever the other elders shall appoint from time to time: and also, if any have been expelled from the church; so that their names may be blotted out of the general church record of names.
All members removing from the church where they reside, if going to a church where they are not known, may take a letter certifying that they are regular members and in good standing; which certificate may be signed by any elder or priest, if the member receiving the letter is personally acquainted with the elder or priest, or it may be signed by the teachers, or deacons

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The “Articles and Covenants” directed deacons to assist teachers in their duties. Deacons were also to “warn, expound, exhort, and teach and invite all to come unto Christ.” Although deacons did not have the authority...

View Glossary
of the church. [p. 4]
ties of his calling—or he may receive  it from a conference

A meeting where ecclesiastical officers and other church members could conduct church business. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed the elders to hold conferences to perform “Church business.” The first of these conferences was held on 9 June...

View Glossary
.
No person is to be ordained

The conferral of power and authority; to appoint, decree, or set apart. Church members, primarily adults, were ordained to ecclesiastical offices and other responsibilities by the laying on of hands by those with the proper authority. Ordinations to priesthood...

View Glossary
to any  office in this church, where there is a  regularly organized branch of the same,  without the vote of that church; but the  presiding elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
, travelling bishops

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. JS appointed Edward Partridge as the first bishop in February 1831. Following this appointment, Partridge functioned as the local leader of the church in Missouri. Later revelations described a bishop’s duties as receiving...

View Glossary
,  high counsellors

A governing body of twelve high priests. The first high council was organized in Kirtland, Ohio, on 17 February 1834 “for the purpose of settling important difficulties which might arise in the church, which could not be settled by the church, or the bishop...

View Glossary
, high priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. Christ and many ancient prophets, including Abraham, were described as being high priests. The Book of Mormon used the term high priest to denote one appointed to lead the church. However, the Book of Mormon also discussed...

View Glossary
, and e lders, may have the privilege of ordain ing, where there is no branch of the  church, that a vote may be called.
Every president of the high priest hood

Both the office of the president of the high priesthood and the body comprising the president and his counselors; the presiding body of the church. In November 1831, a revelation directed the appointment of a president of the high priesthood. The individual...

View Glossary
, (or presiding elder,) bishop, high  counsellor, and high priest, is to be or dained by the direction of a high coun sel, or general conference.
The duty of the members after they  are received by baptism

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
:
The elders or priests

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. In the Book of Mormon, priests were described as those who baptized, administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto the church,” and taught “the things pertaining to the kingdom of God.” A June 1829 revelation directed...

View Glossary
are to have a  sufficient time to expound all things  concerning the church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
to their  understanding, previous to their parta king of the sacrament

Primarily referred to the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, or Communion, as opposed to other religious sacraments. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church directed “that the church meet together often to partake of bread and wine in remembrance of the Lord...

View Glossary
, and being con firmed

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
by the laying on of the hands

A practice in which individuals place their hands upon a person to bestow the gift of the Holy Ghost, ordain to an office or calling, or confer other power, authority, or blessings, often as part of an ordinance. The Book of Mormon explained that ecclesiastical...

View Glossary
 of the elders; so that all things may be  done in order. And the members shall  manifest before the church and also be fore the elders, by a godly walk and  conversation, that they are worthy of  it, that there may be works and faith  agreeable to the holy scriptures

The sacred, written word of God containing the “mind & will of the Lord” and “matters of divine revelation.” Members of the church considered the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and JS’s revelations to be scripture. Revelations in 1830 and 1831 directed JS to ...

View Glossary
—walk ing in holiness before the Lord.
Every member of the church of  Christ having children, is to bring  them unto the elders before the church,  who are to lay their hands upon them in  the name of Jesus Christ, and bless  them in his name.
No one can be received into the  church of Christ unless he has arrived  unto the years of accountability before  God, and is capable of repentance.
Baptism is to be administered in the  following manner unto all those who re pent: The person who is called of God  and has authority from Jesus Christ to  baptize, shall go down into the water  with the person who has presented him,  or herself for baptism, and shall say,  calling him or her by name: Having  been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I  baptize you in the name of the Father,  and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.  Amen. Then shall he immerse him or  her in the water, and come forth again  out of the water.
It is expedient that the church meet  together often to partake of bread and  wine in remembrance of the Lord Je sus: and the elder or priests shall ad minister it: and after this manner shall  he administer it: he shall kneel with  the church and call upon the Father in  solemn prayer, saying, O God, the eter nal Father, we ask thee in the name of  thy Son Jesus Christ to bless and sanc tify this bread to the souls of all those  who partake of it, that they may eat in  remembrance of the body of thy Son,  and witness unto thee O God, the eter nal Father, that they are willing to take  upon them the name of thy Son, and al ways remember him and keep his com mandments

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
which he has given them,  that they may always have his Spirit to  be with them. Amen.
The manner of administering the  wine: He shall take the cup also, and  say, O God, the eternal Father, we ask  thee in the name of thy Son Jesus  Christ, to bless and sanctify this wine  to the souls of all those who drink of  it, that they may do it in remembrance  of the blood of thy Son which was shed  for them, that they may witness unto  thee, O God, the eternal Father, that  they do always remember him, that  they may have his Spirit to be with  them. Amen.
Any member of the church of Christ  transgressing, or being overtaken in a  fault, shall be dealt with as the scrip tures direct.
It shall be the duty of the several  churches composing the church of  Christ, to send one or more of their  teachers

Generally, one who instructs, but also an ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The Book of Mormon explained that teachers were to be ordained “to preach repentance and remission of sins through Jesus Christ, by the endurance of faith on his name to the end...

View Glossary
to attend the several confer ences, held by the elders of the church,  with a list of the names of the several  members uniting themselves with the  church since the last conference, or  send by the hand of some priest, so that  a regular list of all the names of the  whole church may be kept in a book,  by one of the elders, whoever the other  elders shall appoint from time to time:  and also, if any have been expelled  from the church; so that their names  may be blotted out of the general church  record of names.
All members removing from the  church where they reside, if going to a  church where they are not known, may  take a letter certifying that they are  regular members and in good standing;  which certificate may be signed by any  elder or priest, if the member receiving  the letter is personally acquainted with  the elder or priest, or it may be signed  by the teachers, or deacons

An ecclesiastical and priesthood office. The “Articles and Covenants” directed deacons to assist teachers in their duties. Deacons were also to “warn, expound, exhort, and teach and invite all to come unto Christ.” Although deacons did not have the authority...

View Glossary
of the  church. [p. 4]
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In December 1833, six months after the printing office

JS revelations, dated 20 July and 1 Aug. 1831, directed establishment of LDS church’s first printing office in Independence, Missouri. Dedicated by Bishop Edward Partridge, 29 May 1832. Located on Lot 76, on Liberty Street just south of courthouse square....

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in Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

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, Missouri, was destroyed

20 Jul. 1833

Vigilantes, demanding removal of Latter-day Saints from Jackson County, Missouri, destroyed printing office and tarred and feathered Edward Partridge and Charles Allen, Independence, Jackson County, Missouri; a few dozen copies of unfinished Book of Commandments...

and publication efforts there were permanently halted, printing commenced on a newly acquired press in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio. That press, operated by F. G. Williams & Co.

A firm established by the United Firm on 11 September 1833 to print newspapers in Kirtland, Ohio. In December 1833, F. G. Williams & Co. resumed the interrupted printing of the church newspaper The Evening and the Morning Star. After the United Firm was reorganized...

View Glossary
, continued printing The Evening and the Morning Star, the newspaper begun in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, through September 1834. The September 1834 issue of that paper contained a prospectus announcing that the paper’s two volumes would be reprinted.1

“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.  


The first issue of the reprinted newspaper, which appeared under the slightly modified title Evening and Morning Star, was published in January 1835.2

The title that appears in the newspaper’s nameplate was likely shortened because of a reduction in the newspaper’s size. The longer original title, The Evening and the Morning Star, is printed at the middle and end of each issue with other publication information. For the sake of clarity, the reprinted paper is referred to by its shortened title for all references in The Joseph Smith Papers.  


Though touted as a reprint that would correct typographical and other errors,3

“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.  


Evening and Morning Star actually contained significant changes to the revelation texts. In the first issue, editor Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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explained the revisions he was making in the reprinted versions of the revelations:
On the revelations we merely say, that we were not a little surprised to find the previous print so different from the original. We have given them a careful comparison, assisted by individuals whose known integrity and ability is uncensurable. Thus saying we cast no reflections upon those who were entrusted with the responsibility of publishing them in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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, as our own labors were included in that important service to the church, and it was our unceasing endeavor to have them correspond with the copy furnished us. We believe they are now correct. If not in every word, at least in principle.4

Notice, Evening and Morning Star, June 1832 (Jan. 1835), 16. The prospectus to Evening and Morning Star also states “that in the first 14 numbers, in the Revelations, are many errors, typographical, and others, occasioned by transcribing manuscript; but as we shall have access to originals, we shall endeavor to make proper corrections.” (“Prospectus,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Sept. 1834, 192.)  


Despite the implications of Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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’s statement, very few of the changes in the reprint represent a restoration back to the earliest text, though Cowdery consulted early manuscript sources when reprinting some of the revelations.5

On 4 February 1835, Cowdery wrote to Newel K. Whitney requesting that the latter send “the original copy of the Revelation given to 12 elders Feb. 1831 called ‘The Law of the Church.’” Cowdery explained, “We are preparing the old Star for re-printing, and have no copy from which to correct, and kno[w] of no other beside yours.” (Oliver Cowdery, Kirtland, OH, to Newel K. Whitney, 4 Feb. 1835, Newel K. Whitney, Papers, BYU.)  


Because the revelations were meant to be used as a guide for the current operations of the church, they were edited in 1835 to reflect current organization, doctrine, and practice, which had continued to develop since the revelations were first dictated. For example, the version of a 9 February 1831 revelation printed in Evening and Morning Star includes discussion of the duties of elders, priests, teachers, bishops, high priests, and the high council.6

Revelation, 9 Feb. 1831, in “Extract of Covenants for the Church of the Latter Day Saints,” Evening and Morning Star, July 1832 (Feb. 1835), 30–31 [D&C 42].  


Early versions of the revelation, however, make no mention of the office of high priest, which did not exist until June 1831,7

See Minute Book 2, 3 June 1831.  


or of the high council, a body that was not organized until February 1834.8

Minute Book 1, 17 Feb. 1834; see also Minutes, 17 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 5, 1835 ed. [D&C 102].  


The revelation was revised in 1835 to reflect these additional roles. Most of the changes made to revelations in the early issues of Evening and Morning Star are also reflected in the same revelations as published in the first edition of the Doctrine and Covenants (1835), and the editing work on that volume, in turn, influenced the presentation of revelations in later issues of Evening and Morning Star.9

For example, the updates made in Revelation, 9 February 1831, for publication in Evening and Morning Star were then introduced into Doctrine and Covenants 13:8, 10, 19, 1835 ed. [D&C 42:31, 34, 71].  


The table that follows lists each of the revelatory items printed in the Star and its reprint, along with its bibliographic information. See Revelations Printed in The Evening and the Morning Star for a side-by-side comparison of the revelations printed in the Star and its reprint.
Key to column titles
Vol:Issue:Volume and issue number
Star Print Date:Month in which the item was printed in The Evening and the Morning Star
Star Pages:Pages on which the item was printed in The Evening and the Morning Star
Reprint Print Date:Month in which the item was printed in Evening and Morning Star
Reprint Pages:Pages on which the item was printed in Evening and Morning Star
Date:Date of item, followed by section number in Doctrine and Covenants, 1981 edition, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Vol: IssueStar Print DateStar PagesReprint Print DateReprint PagesDate
1:1June 1832[1]Jan. 18352–410 Apr. 1830 [D&C 20]
1:1June 1832[1]–[2]16 Apr. 1830 [D&C 22]
1:1June 1832[2]Jan. 18355–6ca. 7 Mar. 1831 [D&C 45:1–67, 71]
1:2July 1832[1]Feb. 183530–319 and 23 Feb. 1831 [D&C 42:11–77]
1:2July 1832[1]Feb. 183526–277 Aug. 1831 [D&C 59]
1:2July 1832[2]–[3]Feb. 183527–3016 Feb. 1832 [D&C 76]
1:3Aug. 1832[1]Mar. 183542–43ca. 8 Mar. 1831–A [D&C 46]
1:3Aug. 1832[1]Mar. 183543–449 May 1831 [D&C 50]
1:4Sept. 1832[2]Apr. 183560–62Sept. 1830–A [D&C 29]
1:4Sept. 1832[2]Apr. 18356230 Oct. 1831 [D&C 65]
1:5Oct. 1832[2]June 18357423 Feb. 1831 [D&C 42:78-93]
1:5Oct. 1832[2]–[3]June 183574Feb. 1831–A [D&C 43:15–35]
1:5Oct. 1832[3]June 183573–741 Nov. 1831–A [D&C 68]
1:6Nov. 1832[7]Sept. 183593–947 May 1831 [D&C 49]
1:7Dec. 1832[5]Apr. 1836105–10612 Aug. 1831 [D&C 61]
1:7Dec. 1832[5]–[6]Apr. 1836106–1074 Dec. 1831 [D&C 72]
1:8Jan. 1833[5]–[6]Apr. 1836125–1262 Jan. 1831 [D&C 38]
1:8Jan. 1833[6]Apr. 183612630 Apr. 1832 [D&C 83]
1:9Feb. 1833[5]May 183613827–28 Dec. 1832 [D&C 88:117–126]
1:9Feb. 1833[6]–[7]May 1836140–14130 Aug. 1831 [D&C 63:1–64]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836155ca. Aug. 1830 [D&C 27]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836155–1561 Nov. 1831–B [D&C 1]
1:10Mar. 1833[6]May 1836156–1573 Jan. 1833 [D&C 88:127–137]
1:12May 1833[1]–[2]June 1836177–1793 Nov. 1831 [D&C 133]
2:13June 183397–98June 1836193–19610 Apr. 1830 [D&C 20]

Facts