31766

“A History, of the Persecution, of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints in Missouri,” December 1839–October 1840

“A History, of the Persecution, of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints in Missouri,” December 1839–October 1840

Installment 3, February 1840


Editorial Note
Times and Seasons, Feb. 1840, 1:49–51. This is the third installment of the series. The first three installments were based on a manuscript in the hand of Edward Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
.75

Partridge, History, manuscript, Edward Partridge, Miscellaneous Papers, CHL.  



A HISTORY, OF THE PERSECUTION, OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST, OF LATTER DAY SAINTS IN MISSOURI

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
.
 
continued.
 
The Governor, Daniel Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
, was disposed to bring the mobbers to justice; consequently, ten or twelve, witnesses were subpoened to attend the February term of the circuit court Capt. David R. Atchison

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
was ordered to guard them over to Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, and back, with his company of Liberty Blues.76

The Partridge manuscript incorrectly identifies Atchison’s troops as the “Liberty grays.”  


The attorney Gen. was also ordered, or requested, by the Gov.

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
to attend the court, to assist the circuit attorney

2 Dec. 1800–29 Jan. 1886. Lawyer. Born in Winchester, Frederick Co., Virginia. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Married Judith B. Trigg, 15 July 1830, in Liberty, Clay Co. Prosecuting attorney for Clay Co., 1831–1834. Prosecuting attorney for Missouri...

View Full Bio
, in the investigation.77

The Missouri attorney general was Robert W. Wells; the circuit attorney was Amos Rees. This criminal investigation was to be undertaken by a grand jury empaneled in Jackson County. (“Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser [Columbia], 8 Mar. 1834, [1].)  


The witnesses were guarded over to Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
, and after having been there a short time, they were visited by the circuit attorney

2 Dec. 1800–29 Jan. 1886. Lawyer. Born in Winchester, Frederick Co., Virginia. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Married Judith B. Trigg, 15 July 1830, in Liberty, Clay Co. Prosecuting attorney for Clay Co., 1831–1834. Prosecuting attorney for Missouri...

View Full Bio
, accompanied by the attorney General. They informed the witnesses, that such was the excitement prevailing there; that it was doubtful whether any thing could be done to bring the mobbers to justice; that if any should be convicted, they would only be fined in some trifling sum, not to exceed $5, at most, just enough to answer the law.78

“Just enough to answer the law” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


And they advised the witnesses not to go before the grand jury, intimating at the same time, that they might be in danger.— The witnesses replied, that they had been ordered there by the court, and they supposed, that they were still subject to the court, or to them, the attornies. As to the danger, in going before the grand jury they feared it not: they were ready and willing to go and testify to the truth. The attornies left them, and in a short time after, they were informed by Capt. Atchison

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
, that the Judge, Mr. John F. Ryland

2 Nov. 1797–10 Sept. 1873. Teacher, farmer, lawyer, judge. Born in King and Queen Co., Virginia. Son of Joseph Ryland and Rosamiah Molly. Moved to Richmond, Madison Co., Kentucky, 1809. Attended Forest Hill Academy in Washington Co. (later in Marion Co.),...

View Full Bio
, had sent him word, that the witnesses and guard, were not wanted there any longer; Capt. A.

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
paraded his men, as soon, and as well as he could for the crowd, and immediately marched off, the witnesses following him.79

William W. Phelps reported that the Latter-day Saint witnesses learned from Amos Rees and Robert W. Wells “that all hopes of criminal prosecution, was at an end,” after which Atchison and his men, who had been ordered by Ryland to return to Liberty, escorted the Mormons back to Clay County. The Missouri Intelligencer reported that Ryland, Rees, and Wells found “it was entirely unnecessarry to investigate this subject on the part of the State, as the jury were equally concerned in the outrages committed it was therefore not likely that any bills would be found.” (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Mar. 1834, 139; italics in original; “Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser [Columbia], 8 Mar. 1834, [1].)  


All hopes were now given up of ever bringing that people to justice; their hatred towards the saints, appeared to be unabating; they frequently sent over word to Clay co.

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
that they were coming over to drive them from that place; they even went so far, as to circulate a paper in Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, the object of which was to obtain volunteers there, to assist them in driving the saints away.— In Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
however, they had but a few friends, (for some time,) and could not obtain many signers.
A wealthy farmer, by the name of Michael Arthur

19 May 1800–8 Aug. 1884. Farmer. Born in Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Married Amanda M. F. Martin, 24 May 1822, in Jessamine Co., Kentucky. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Befriended and employed many Latter-day Saints after they were expelled ...

View Full Bio
,80

The Partridge manuscript does not name the farmer. Arthur was described in the church newspaper as “a respectable and wealthy planter of Clay county.” (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, May 1834, 159.)  


living in Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, who was then friendly to the saints, and who was in the habit of sending flour and whiskey into Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to sell, (it generally being higher there than in Clay

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, in consequence of the Indian trade,)81

The Partridge manuscript does not have “in consequence of the Indian trade.”  


sent over one of his negroes and team with a load, sometime that fall or winter,82

“Sometime that fall or winter” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


they were stopped on the road by some of the good people of Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, who mounted the load, and with axes cut the barrels to pieces, and wasted the flour and whisky upon the ground.
In 1834, if we mistake not, an inoffensive Br. by the name of Ira J. Willes went into Jackson co.

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to hunt for a lost cow; he was taken by some of the ruffians residing there, who, after stripping off his clothes, whipped him unmercifully. For the credit of Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
, we would state that he was taken from the house of a Justice of the Peace; this is an ensample of upper Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
peace makers.83

The previous sentence does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


The same year, Br. Lewis Abbott

14 Dec. 1795–26 Aug. 1851. Farmer. Born at Wayland, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Amos Abbott and Lydia Moore. Married Ann Marsh, 12 Oct. 1829. Baptized into LDS church, May 1831. Migrated to western Missouri, 1832. Assaulted while traveling in Jackson...

View Full Bio
, a very peacible man, went to Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to see a man who owed him; on his way he was discovered, and overtaken by some of that lawless banditti, who beat him with handspikes, no doubt with an intent to kill, for that was what they swore they would do; but his life was preserved, and he escaped out of their hands.84

“For that was what they swore they would do” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript. Abbott later testified that his assailants “nocked me dow[n] and beat me as they supposed near unto death.” (Lewis Abbott, Statement, Adams Co., IL, 25 June 1839, photocopy, Material Relating to Mormon Expulsion from Missouri, 1839–1843, CHL.)  


Thus have that people, unceasingly abused, and persecuted the saints whenever they could get an opportunity.
Gov. Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
appeared willing to guard back the saints to Jackson co.

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
[p. 49]

Installment 3, February 1840


Editorial Note
Times and Seasons, Feb. 1840, 1:49–51. This is the third installment of the series. The first three installments were based on a manuscript in the hand of Edward Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
.75

Partridge, History, manuscript, Edward Partridge, Miscellaneous Papers, CHL.  



A HISTORY, OF THE  PERSECUTION, OF THE CHURCH  OF JESUS CHRIST, OF LAT TER DAY SAINTS IN  MISSOURI

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
.
 
continued.
 
The Governor, D[aniel] Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
, was dis posed to bring the mobbers to justice;  consequently, ten or twelve, witnesses  were subpoened to attend the February  term of the circuit court Capt. [David R.] Atchi son

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
was ordered to guard them over to  Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, and back, with his company  of Liberty Blues.76

The Partridge manuscript incorrectly identifies Atchison’s troops as the “Liberty grays.”  


The attorney Gen.  was also ordered, or requested, by the  Gov.

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
to attend the court, to assist the  circuit attorney

2 Dec. 1800–29 Jan. 1886. Lawyer. Born in Winchester, Frederick Co., Virginia. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Married Judith B. Trigg, 15 July 1830, in Liberty, Clay Co. Prosecuting attorney for Clay Co., 1831–1834. Prosecuting attorney for Missouri...

View Full Bio
, in the investigation.77

The Missouri attorney general was Robert W. Wells; the circuit attorney was Amos Rees. This criminal investigation was to be undertaken by a grand jury empaneled in Jackson County. (“Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser [Columbia], 8 Mar. 1834, [1].)  


 The witnesses were guarded over to  Independence

Located twelve miles from western Missouri border. Permanently settled, platted, and designated county seat, 1827. Hub for steamboat travel on Missouri River. Point of departure for Santa Fe Trail. Population in 1831 about 300. Mormon population by summer...

More Info
, and after having been  there a short time, they were visited  by the circuit attorney

2 Dec. 1800–29 Jan. 1886. Lawyer. Born in Winchester, Frederick Co., Virginia. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Married Judith B. Trigg, 15 July 1830, in Liberty, Clay Co. Prosecuting attorney for Clay Co., 1831–1834. Prosecuting attorney for Missouri...

View Full Bio
, accompanied  by the attorney General. They in formed the witnesses, that such was  the excitement prevailing there; that it  was doubtful whether any thing could  be done to bring the mobbers to justice;  that if any should be convicted, they  would only be fined in some trifling  sum, not to exceed $5, at most, just  enough to answer the law.78

“Just enough to answer the law” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


And they  advised the witnesses not to go before  the grand jury, intimating at the same  time, that they might be in danger.—  The witnesses replied, that they had  been ordered there by the court, and  they supposed, that they were still sub ject to the court, or to them, the at tornies. As to the danger, in going  before the grand jury they feared it  not: they were ready and willing to go  and testify to the truth. The attor nies left them, and in a short time af ter, they were informed by Capt.  Atchison

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
, that the Judge, Mr. [John F.] Ryland

2 Nov. 1797–10 Sept. 1873. Teacher, farmer, lawyer, judge. Born in King and Queen Co., Virginia. Son of Joseph Ryland and Rosamiah Molly. Moved to Richmond, Madison Co., Kentucky, 1809. Attended Forest Hill Academy in Washington Co. (later in Marion Co.),...

View Full Bio
,  had sent him word, that the witnesses  and guard, were not wanted there any  longer; Capt. A.

11 Aug. 1807–26 Jan. 1886. Lawyer, judge, agriculturist, politician, farmer. Born at Frogtown, near Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of William Atchison and Catherine Allen. About 1830, moved to Liberty, Clay Co., Missouri, where he became a prominent...

View Full Bio
paraded his men, as  soon, and as well as he could for the  crowd, and immediately marched off,  the witnesses following him.79

William W. Phelps reported that the Latter-day Saint witnesses learned from Amos Rees and Robert W. Wells “that all hopes of criminal prosecution, was at an end,” after which Atchison and his men, who had been ordered by Ryland to return to Liberty, escorted the Mormons back to Clay County. The Missouri Intelligencer reported that Ryland, Rees, and Wells found “it was entirely unnecessarry to investigate this subject on the part of the State, as the jury were equally concerned in the outrages committed it was therefore not likely that any bills would be found.” (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Mar. 1834, 139; italics in original; “Mormon Difficulties,” Missouri Intelligencer and Boon’s Lick Advertiser [Columbia], 8 Mar. 1834, [1].)  


All hopes  were now given up of ever bringing  that people to justice; their hatred to wards the saints, appeared to be una bating; they frequently sent over word  to Clay co.

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
that they were coming over  to drive them from that place; they  even went so far, as to circulate a pa per in Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, the object of which  was to obtain volunteers there, to as sist them in driving the saints away.—  In Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
however, they had but  a few friends, (for some time,) and  could not obtain many signers.
A wealthy farmer, by the name of  [Michael] Arthur

19 May 1800–8 Aug. 1884. Farmer. Born in Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Married Amanda M. F. Martin, 24 May 1822, in Jessamine Co., Kentucky. Moved to Clay Co., Missouri, by 1830. Befriended and employed many Latter-day Saints after they were expelled ...

View Full Bio
,80

The Partridge manuscript does not name the farmer. Arthur was described in the church newspaper as “a respectable and wealthy planter of Clay county.” (“The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” The Evening and the Morning Star, May 1834, 159.)  


living in Clay county

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, who  was then friendly to the saints, and  who was in the habit of sending flour  and whiskey into Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to sell, (it  generally being higher there than in  Clay

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, in consequence of the Indian  trade,)81

The Partridge manuscript does not have “in consequence of the Indian trade.”  


sent over one of his negroes  and team with a load, sometime that  fall or winter,82

“Sometime that fall or winter” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


they were stopped  on the road by some of the good peo ple of Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, who mounted the load,  and with axes cut the barrels to pieces,  and wasted the flour and whisky upon  the ground.
In 1834, if we mistake not, an in offensive Br. by the name of Ira J.  Willes went into Jackson co.

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to hunt  for a lost cow; he was taken by some  of the ruffians residing there, who, after  stripping off his clothes, whipped him  unmercifully. For the credit of Mis souri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
, we would state that he was ta ken from the house of a Justice of the  Peace; this is an ensample of upper  Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
peace makers.83

The previous sentence does not appear in the Partridge manuscript.  


The same  year, Br. Lewis Abbot[t]

14 Dec. 1795–26 Aug. 1851. Farmer. Born at Wayland, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Amos Abbott and Lydia Moore. Married Ann Marsh, 12 Oct. 1829. Baptized into LDS church, May 1831. Migrated to western Missouri, 1832. Assaulted while traveling in Jackson...

View Full Bio
, a very peaci ble man, went to Jackson

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
to see a man  who owed him; on his way he was  discovered, and overtaken by some of  that lawless banditti, who beat him  with handspikes, no doubt with an in tent to kill, for that was what they swore they  would do; but his life was  preserved, and he escaped out of their  hands.84

“For that was what they swore they would do” does not appear in the Partridge manuscript. Abbott later testified that his assailants “nocked me dow[n] and beat me as they supposed near unto death.” (Lewis Abbott, Statement, Adams Co., IL, 25 June 1839, photocopy, Material Relating to Mormon Expulsion from Missouri, 1839–1843, CHL.)  


Thus have that people, un ceasingly abused, and persecuted the  saints whenever they could get an op portunity.
Gov. Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
appeared willing to  guard back the saints to Jackson co.

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
[p. 49]
PreviousNext
While incarcerated at Liberty

Located in western Missouri, thirteen miles north of Independence. Settled 1820. Clay Co. seat, 1822. Incorporated as town, May 1829. Following expulsion from Jackson Co., 1833, many Latter-day Saints found refuge in Clay Co., with church leaders and other...

More Info
, Missouri, in March 1839, JS addressed a letter to the Saints, and to “Bishop [Edward] Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

View Full Bio
in particular,” in which he called for the Saints to gather up “a knoledge of all the facts and sufferings and abuses put upon them” in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
that they might publish the records “to all the world” and “present them to the heads of the government.”1

JS et al., Liberty, MO, to the church members and Edward Partridge, Quincy, IL, 20 Mar. 1839, in Revelations Collection, CHL [D&C 123:1, 6]. An edited and slightly shortened version of the letter was published in two parts in the Times and Seasons, May and July 1840. The instruction to record the Saints’ Missouri history was part of the July installment. (“Copy of a Letter, Written by J. Smith Jr. and Others, While in Prison,” Times and Seasons, May 1840, 1:99–104; “An Extract of a Letter Written to Bishop Partridge, and the Saints in General,” Times and Seasons, July 1840, 1:131–134.)  


Apparently in response to this assignment, Edward Partridge wrote a history that became the first three installments of “A History, of the Persecution, of the Church of Jesus Christ, of Latter Day Saints in Missouri,” an eleven-part series published in the church’s Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

More Info
newspaper, Times and Seasons, between December 1839 and October 1840. This series gave the first extended account of the Missouri period to be printed in the Latter-day Saint press. The editors of the Times and Seasons, Ebenezer Robinson

25 May 1816–11 Mar. 1891. Printer, editor, publisher. Born at Floyd (near Rome), Oneida Co., New York. Son of Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown. Moved to Utica, Oneida Co., ca. 1831, and learned printing trade at Utica Observer. Moved to Ravenna, Portage Co....

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and Don Carlos Smith

25 Mar. 1816–7 Aug. 1841. Farmer, printer, editor. Born at Norwich, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816–Jan. 1817. Moved to Manchester, Ontario Co., 1825. Baptized into LDS church by David...

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, announced in its first issue that the newspaper would “commence publishing the history of the disturbances in Missouri, in regular series,”2

“A Word to the Saints,” Times and Seasons, July 1839, 1:12. After the first copies of the first number were printed in July, publication of the Times and Seasons halted for several months because both editors fell ill amidst a malaria outbreak in the Commerce, Illinois, area. The first number was reissued under the date November 1839.  


and the first installment appeared in the second issue.
“A History, of the Persecution” begins with Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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’s account of the Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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conflicts in the early 1830s. Partridge was a bishop of the church in Missouri, first in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

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, then in Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

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following the Latter-day Saints’ expulsion from Jackson, and finally in Caldwell County

Located in northwest Missouri. Settled by whites, by 1831. Described as being “one-third timber and two-thirds prairie” in 1836. Created specifically for Latter-day Saints by Missouri state legislature, 29 Dec. 1836, in attempt to solve “Mormon problem.” ...

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after the Saints relocated from Clay. By the time he wrote this account of the Mormons’ experiences in Missouri, the Saints had been exiled from the state and had relocated to Illinois

Became part of Northwest Territory of U.S., 1787. Admitted as state, 1818. Population in 1840 about 480,000. Population in 1845 about 660,000. Plentiful, inexpensive land attracted settlers from northern and southern states. Following expulsion from Missouri...

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. Partridge lived first at Pittsfield, then at Quincy

Located on high limestone bluffs east of Mississippi River, about forty-five miles south of Nauvoo. Settled 1821. Adams Co. seat, 1825. Incorporated as town, 1834. Received city charter, 1840. Population in 1835 about 800; in 1840 about 2,300; and in 1845...

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. In July 1839 he settled in the Commerce

Located near middle of western boundary of state, bordering Mississippi River. European Americans settled area, 1820s. From bank of river, several feet above high-water mark, ground described as nearly level for six or seven blocks before gradually sloping...

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area, where he served again as a bishop in the new Mormon community being established there.3

Edward Partridge, Miscellaneous papers, CHL. This collection of Partridge papers includes other autobiographical writings about Missouri events.  


Partridge’s narrative is based on firsthand observations and may also have relied on other records he kept. The manuscript version of the history begins, “In presenting to our readers a history of the persecutions,” indicating that Partridge wrote it for publication purposes.4

Partridge, History, manuscript, Edward Partridge, Miscellaneous Papers, CHL. Significant differences between the first three installments of “History, of the Persecution” and the Partridge manuscript are described in footnotes herein.  


He may have intended to tell the entire Missouri story himself, but he fell ill shortly after publication of the “History of the Persecution” began, and he died 27 May 1840.
The fourth installment of “History, of the Persecution” provides a brief transition from Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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’s account, which ends in 1836 as the Saints were settling in what became Caldwell County

Located in northwest Missouri. Settled by whites, by 1831. Described as being “one-third timber and two-thirds prairie” in 1836. Created specifically for Latter-day Saints by Missouri state legislature, 29 Dec. 1836, in attempt to solve “Mormon problem.” ...

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, to the conflicts in Caldwell and adjoining counties beginning in 1838. Though the source or author of this portion is not known, it may have been written by editors Ebenezer Robinson

25 May 1816–11 Mar. 1891. Printer, editor, publisher. Born at Floyd (near Rome), Oneida Co., New York. Son of Nathan Robinson and Mary Brown. Moved to Utica, Oneida Co., ca. 1831, and learned printing trade at Utica Observer. Moved to Ravenna, Portage Co....

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and Don Carlos Smith

25 Mar. 1816–7 Aug. 1841. Farmer, printer, editor. Born at Norwich, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Palmyra, Ontario Co., New York, 1816–Jan. 1817. Moved to Manchester, Ontario Co., 1825. Baptized into LDS church by David...

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. Perhaps prompted by Partridge’s illness, the editors sought elsewhere for source materials to continue the series. In April 1840, the fifth installment reprinted passages from Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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’s History of the Late Persecution Inflicted by the State of Missouri upon the Mormons (Detroit: Dawson and Bates, 1839), and the sixth in May excerpted Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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’s An Appeal to the American People: Being an Account of the Persecutions of the Church of Latter Day Saints; and of the Barbarities Inflicted on Them by the Inhabitants of the State of Missouri (Cincinnati: Glezan and Shepard, 1840).5

No manuscript is known to exist for Pratt’s published pamphlet. Rigdon is not named as the author on the title page of Appeal to the American People, but he is credited as such in the “History, of the Persecution” series and in advertisements for the pamphlet in the Times and Seasons. A manuscript version of Rigdon’s Appeal to the American People, titled “To the Publick” and inscribed by George W. Robinson, is found in the JS Collection at the Church History Library. Many textual differences exist between the manuscript and Appeal to the American People, and the editors of the Times and Seasons clearly used the published pamphlet, not the manuscript, as their source. (“History, of the Persecution,” May 1840, 1:99; Advertisement, Times and Seasons, 1 Jan. 1841, 2:272.)  


In June the editors again excerpted Pratt’s History of the Late Persecution, and in the three articles published from July to September they reprinted more of Rigdon’s work. The series concluded in the October 1840 issue with a reprint of the speech that John B. Clark

17 Apr. 1802–29 Oct. 1885. Lawyer, politician. Born at Madison Co., Kentucky. Moved to Howard Co., Missouri, 1818. Practiced law in Fayette, Howard Co., beginning 1824. Clerk of Howard Co. courts, 1824–1834. Appointed brigadier general in Missouri militia...

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, a major general of the Missouri state militia, made to the Latter-day Saints at Far West

Originally called Shoal Creek. Located fifty-five miles northeast of Independence. Surveyed 1823; first settled by whites, 1831. Site purchased, 8 Aug. 1836, before Caldwell Co. was organized for Latter-day Saints in Missouri. William W. Phelps and John Whitmer...

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, Caldwell County, on 5 November 1838.
The “History, of the Persecution” is representative of the many histories and individual petitions written at the time to document the Saints’ experiences in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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. Its excerpts from Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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’s History of the Late Persecution and Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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’s Appeal to the American People provide a useful sampling of two published histories of the period and demonstrate that documenting these events was a widespread effort.6

Earlier published accounts of the Jackson County conflicts from Latter-day Saints include the broadside “The Mormons,” So Called, dated 12 December 1833, and its reprint in The Evening and the Morning Star, Extra, Feb. 1834, [1]–[2]; a series titled “The Outrage in Jackson County, Missouri,” published in The Evening and the Morning Star, Dec. 1833–Mar. 1834 and May–June 1834; John P. Greene’s pamphlet Facts Relative to the Expulsion of the Mormons or Latter Day Saints, from the State of Missouri, under the “Exterminating Order” (Cincinnati: R. P. Brooks, 1839); and John Taylor’s eight-page work, A Short Account of the Murders, Roberies, Burnings, Thefts, and Other Outrages Committed by the Mob and Militia of the State of Missouri, Upon the Latter Day Saints (Springfield, IL: By the author, 1839).  


Publication in the church’s periodical lent credibility to the series and ensured that it was the source from which many new Mormon converts learned the details of the church’s history in Missouri. What they read was not the work of neutral historians detached from the events described. When Partridge

27 Aug. 1793–27 May 1840. Hatter. Born at Pittsfield, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of William Partridge and Jemima Bidwell. Moved to Painesville, Geauga Co., Ohio. Married Lydia Clisbee, 22 Aug. 1819, at Painesville. Initially a Universal Restorationist...

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, Pratt, and Rigdon wrote their histories, the persecutions and injustices against them were still fresh in their memories. All three authors suffered personally during the Missouri hardships, and as they and other Saints undertook to write about their experiences, their primary focus was to fulfill JS’s directive—to obtain redress by making known the “nefarious and murderous impositions that have been practiced upon this people.”7

JS et al., Liberty, MO, to the church members and Edward Partridge, Quincy, IL, 20 Mar. 1839, in Revelations Collection, CHL [D&C 123:5].  


Facts