To confirm or solemnize.1 In the early 1830s, revelations often adopted biblical usage of the term seal; for example, “sealed up the testimony” referred to proselytizing and testifying of the gospel as a warning of the approaching end time.2 JS explained in October of that year that high priests had power to “seal up the Saints unto eternal life.”3 Similarly, a November 1831 revelation indicated that those being sent forth to preach at that time had the power “to seal both on earth & in heaven, the unbelieving and rebellious.”4 JS and other church members also used the word seal to indicate that religious proceedings, prayers, blessings, anointings, or marriages solemnized by the proper authority would be recognized and efficacious in heaven.5 Such sealings were performed in many ways: by the laying of hands on the person’s head, with uplifted hands, by prayer, by announcement, with hosannas or amens, or by combinations of these.6 Martyrs were also described as sealing “their testimony with their blood.”7