27466

Journal, 1832–1834


Editorial Note
JS and other volunteers of the armed expeditionary force that had been recruited for “the restoration and redemption of Zion”113

Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 101:6, 1844 ed. [D&C 103:29].  


departed Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

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for Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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on 5 May 1834. A smaller contingent started from Pontiac, Michigan, and joined them at Allred settlement, Monroe County, Missouri. After learning on 15 June that Missouri governor Daniel Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

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would not order the state’s militia to escort the Mormons to their Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
lands as the Mormons had hoped, JS’s company, now numbering some two hundred, nevertheless continued their march to Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

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, Missouri. Their approach prompted negotiations between Mormons exiled from Jackson County—now living in Clay County—and Jackson County residents. Compromise proved impossible given the entrenched positions of both sides: the Mormons insisted on maintaining their rights to return to their property and refused to sell, and Jacksonites refused to have the Mormons live among them. Local residents also prepared for armed confrontation with the advancing Mormons. When questioned about his intentions, JS disavowed any military offensive, and no armed confrontation materialized.
In mid-June a cholera epidemic began to make inroads among JS’s company. On 22 June, JS announced a revelation postponing the redemption of Zion “for a little season.” Zion would be redeemed only after the Latter-day Saints purchased additional land in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
and vicinity; after their leading elders were “endowed with power from on high” in Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
; and after the Mormons in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
found “favor in the eyes of the people, until the army of Israel becomes very great.”114

Revelation, 22 June 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 102:3, 8, 1844 ed. [D&C 105:9, 13, 26].  


Thus JS maintained long-term hopes for a temporarily failed enterprise. The cholera-decimated Mormon troops were dispersed and soon discharged to remain in Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
or—in most cases—to return eastward to their homes. JS organized a standing high council for the Missouri Mormons and selected a number of Missouri church leaders to be endowed in the House of the Lord

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
then under construction in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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. JS and other members of the Camp of Israel expedition, which later became known as Zion’s Camp, returned to Ohio in early August. While JS did not keep a personal record during this time, he assigned Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

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to send periodic reports of their journey to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
in Kirtland.115

JS, Richmond, IN, to Emma Smith, Kirtland Mills, OH, 19 May 1834, CCLA.  


However, no such reports have survived. JS later oversaw the creation of a history that drew on others’ accounts to create a narrative of the journey.116

JS History, vol. A-1, 474–527; compare George A. Smith, Autobiography, 14–43; Kimball, “History,” 11–24; and Woodruff, Journal, 1 May–1 July 1834.  


In the wake of the failure to effect a return of Mormon refugees to Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, the Latter-day Saints’ highest priorities became completing the construction of their temple

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
and purchasing land in the vicinity of Jackson County. Both endeavors were understood to be prerequisites to returning to their Zion; both would impose great financial burdens.

21 August 1834 • Thursday

This day Brother Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
returned from Cleveland

Cuyahoga Co. seat of justice, 1833. Situated on south shore of Lake Erie, just east of mouth of Cuyahoga River. First settled, 1797. Incorporated as village, 1815; incorporated as city, 1836. Became center of business and trade at opening of Ohio and Erie...

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and told us concerning the plague,117

An epidemic of Asiatic cholera spread through Europe and reached American cities in 1832. Cleveland was revisited with the disease in 1834, and JS and other members of the expeditionary force suffered an outbreak near the end of the Missouri expedition. JS and other Latter-day Saints viewed the epidemic within a framework of millennial judgment. (Chambers, Conquest of Cholera, chaps. 1–6; Avery, History of Cleveland, 1:145; Kimball, “History,” 21–24; JS, Kirtland, OH, to Lyman Wight et al., Missouri, 16 Aug. 1834, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 84–87; “The Cholera,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Aug. 1832, [1]; Sept. 1832, [1]; see also JS, Hyrum [Hiram, OH], to William W. Phelps, Zion [Independence], MO, 31 July 1832, JS Collection, CHL.)  


and after much consultation we agreed that Brother Frederick

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
should go to Cleveland

Cuyahoga Co. seat of justice, 1833. Situated on south shore of Lake Erie, just east of mouth of Cuyahoga River. First settled, 1797. Incorporated as village, 1815; incorporated as city, 1836. Became center of business and trade at opening of Ohio and Erie...

More Info
and commence administering to the sick, for the purpose of obtaining blessings for them and for the glory of the Lord.118

Before the strikethroughs and revisions, this passage read, “administering to the sick, for the purpose of obtaining means for the work of the Lord”, perhaps showing that Williams intended to raise money for the church by charging for medical services. Williams was a practicing botanical physician. (Williams, “Frederick Granger Williams,” 244–245, 251–252; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 42; JS History, vol. A-1, addenda, 16n18.)  


Accordingly we, Joseph, Frederick

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, and Oliver Cowdery, united in prayer before the Lord for this thing. [p. 85]

Editorial Note
JS and other volunteers of the armed expeditionary force that had been recruited for “the restoration and redemption of Zion”113

Revelation, 24 Feb. 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 101:6, 1844 ed. [D&C 103:29].  


departed Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
for Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
on 5 May 1834. A smaller contingent started from Pontiac, Michigan, and joined them at Allred settlement, Monroe County, Missouri. After learning on 15 June that Missouri governor Daniel Dunklin

14 Jan. 1790–25 July 1844. Farmer, tavern owner, businessman, investor, lawyer, politician. Born near Greenville, Greenville District, South Carolina. Son of Joseph Dunklin Jr. and Sarah Margaret Sullivan. Moved to what became Caldwell Co., Kentucky, 1806...

View Full Bio
would not order the state’s militia to escort the Mormons to their Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
lands as the Mormons had hoped, JS’s company, now numbering some two hundred, nevertheless continued their march to Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
, Missouri. Their approach prompted negotiations between Mormons exiled from Jackson County—now living in Clay County—and Jackson County residents. Compromise proved impossible given the entrenched positions of both sides: the Mormons insisted on maintaining their rights to return to their property and refused to sell, and Jacksonites refused to have the Mormons live among them. Local residents also prepared for armed confrontation with the advancing Mormons. When questioned about his intentions, JS disavowed any military offensive, and no armed confrontation materialized.
In mid-June a cholera epidemic began to make inroads among JS’s company. On 22 June, JS announced a revelation postponing the redemption of Zion “for a little season.” Zion would be redeemed only after the Latter-day Saints purchased additional land in Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
and vicinity; after their leading elders were “endowed with power from on high” in Ohio

French explored area, 1669. British took possession following French and Indian War, 1763. Ceded to U.S., 1783. First permanent white settlement established, 1788. Northeastern portion maintained as part of Connecticut, 1786, and called Connecticut Western...

More Info
; and after the Mormons in Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

More Info
found “favor in the eyes of the people, until the army of Israel becomes very great.”114

Revelation, 22 June 1834, in Doctrine and Covenants 102:3, 8, 1844 ed. [D&C 105:9, 13, 26].  


Thus JS maintained long-term hopes for a temporarily failed enterprise. The cholera-decimated Mormon troops were dispersed and soon discharged to remain in Clay County

Settled ca. 1800. Organized from Ray Co., 1822. Original size diminished when land was taken to create several surrounding counties. Liberty designated county seat, 1822. Population in 1830 about 5,000; in 1836 about 8,500; and in 1840 about 8,300. Refuge...

More Info
or—in most cases—to return eastward to their homes. JS organized a standing high council for the Missouri Mormons and selected a number of Missouri church leaders to be endowed in the House of the Lord

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
then under construction in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
. JS and other members of the Camp of Israel expedition, which later became known as Zion’s Camp, returned to Ohio in early August. While JS did not keep a personal record during this time, he assigned Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
to send periodic reports of their journey to Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
in Kirtland.115

JS, Richmond, IN, to Emma Smith, Kirtland Mills, OH, 19 May 1834, CCLA.  


However, no such reports have survived. JS later oversaw the creation of a history that drew on others’ accounts to create a narrative of the journey.116

JS History, vol. A-1, 474–527; compare George A. Smith, Autobiography, 14–43; Kimball, “History,” 11–24; and Woodruff, Journal, 1 May–1 July 1834.  


In the wake of the failure to effect a return of Mormon refugees to Jackson County

Settled at Fort Osage, 1808. County created, 16 Feb. 1825; organized 1826. Named after U.S. president Andrew Jackson. Featured fertile lands along Missouri River and was Santa Fe Trail departure point, which attracted immigrants to area. Area of county reduced...

More Info
, the Latter-day Saints’ highest priorities became completing the construction of their temple

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1831, directed Latter-day Saints to migrate to Ohio, where they would “be endowed with power from on high.” In Dec. 1832, JS revelation directed Saints to “establish . . . an house of God.” JS revelation, dated 1 June 1833, chastened...

More Info
in Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

More Info
and purchasing land in the vicinity of Jackson County. Both endeavors were understood to be prerequisites to returning to their Zion; both would impose great financial burdens.

21 August 1834 • Thursday

Oliver Cowdery handwriting begins.  


August 21st 1834.  This day brother Freder ick [G.] Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
returned from  Cleveland

Cuyahoga Co. seat of justice, 1833. Situated on south shore of Lake Erie, just east of mouth of Cuyahoga River. First settled, 1797. Incorporated as village, 1815; incorporated as city, 1836. Became center of business and trade at opening of Ohio and Erie...

More Info
and told us con cerning the plague,117

An epidemic of Asiatic cholera spread through Europe and reached American cities in 1832. Cleveland was revisited with the disease in 1834, and JS and other members of the expeditionary force suffered an outbreak near the end of the Missouri expedition. JS and other Latter-day Saints viewed the epidemic within a framework of millennial judgment. (Chambers, Conquest of Cholera, chaps. 1–6; Avery, History of Cleveland, 1:145; Kimball, “History,” 21–24; JS, Kirtland, OH, to Lyman Wight et al., Missouri, 16 Aug. 1834, in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 84–87; “The Cholera,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Aug. 1832, [1]; Sept. 1832, [1]; see also JS, Hyrum [Hiram, OH], to William W. Phelps, Zion [Independence], MO, 31 July 1832, JS Collection, CHL.)  


and  after much consultation  we agreed that bro. Fred erick

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
should go to Cleve land

Cuyahoga Co. seat of justice, 1833. Situated on south shore of Lake Erie, just east of mouth of Cuyahoga River. First settled, 1797. Incorporated as village, 1815; incorporated as city, 1836. Became center of business and trade at opening of Ohio and Erie...

More Info
and commence admin istering to the sick, for the  purpose of obtaining  means <blessings for them, and> for the work of  <glory of> the Lord:118

Before the strikethroughs and revisions, this passage read, “administering to the sick, for the purpose of obtaining means for the work of the Lord”, perhaps showing that Williams intended to raise money for the church by charging for medical services. Williams was a practicing botanical physician. (Williams, “Frederick Granger Williams,” 244–245, 251–252; George A. Smith, Autobiography, 42; JS History, vol. A-1, addenda, 16n18.)  


Accordingly, we,  Joseph, Frederick

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, and  Oliver [Cowdery] united in prayer  before the Lord for this  thing. [p. 85]
PreviousNext
JS, “Joseph Smith Jrs Book for Record,” Journal, Nov. 1832–Dec. 1834; handwriting of Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

View Full Bio
, JS, Frederick G. Williams

28 Oct. 1787–10 Oct. 1842. Ship’s pilot, teacher, physician, justice of the peace. Born at Suffield, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of William Wheeler Williams and Ruth Granger. Moved to Newburg, Cuyahoga Co., Ohio, 1799. Practiced Thomsonian botanical system...

View Full Bio
, Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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, Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, Freeman Nickerson

2/12 Apr. 1806–16/14 Sept. 1862. Merchant, farmer. Born at Cavendish, Windsor Co., Vermont. Son of Freeman Nickerson and Huldah Chapman. Moved to Dayton, Cattaraugus Co., New York, mid 1820s. Moved to Mount Pleasant, Brantford Township, Wentworth Co. (later...

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, and six unidentified scribes; ninety-three pages; JS Collection, CHL. Includes redactions, use marks, and archival marking.
Pocket-size memorandum book, 5⅞ × 3¾ × ¼ inches (15 × 10 × 1 cm). The text block consists of fifty-four leaves measuring 5⅞ × 3⅝ inches (15 × 9 cm). There are four gatherings of six sheets each of ledger paper. Each sheet is folded so that each gathering has twelve leaves (twenty-four pages). These pages are ruled with sixteen blue horizontal lines—now almost entirely faded—as well as with red vertical lines for recording financial information. The endpapers consist of pastedowns on the inside covers and two free flyleaves in both the front and back. The gatherings are sewn all along on sawn-in cords. The front and back covers of the journal are pasteboard. The ledger has a tight-back case binding with a black calfskin quarter-leather binding. The outside covers are adorned in Schrottel marbled paper, with gray body and veins of black and blue. The volume originally had three leather loops—two in the back and one in the front—that were tipped in between the inside covers and the pastedowns. The former presence of the front cover loop, no longer extant, is evident from creasing and staining on the pastedown, which is now detached. The leather loops and their spacing allowed for the book to be fastened by inserting a pencil between all three loops. The vibrant blue veins and the grain of the marbling, now greatly diminished by water damage, are also visible under the now loose front pastedown.
JS wrote “Joseph Smith 1832.<3–4>” on the front cover in brown ink. On the front pastedown, “Joseph Smith” is written sideways, running upward near the bottom of the outer edge. Also, “Joseph” is written sideways, running downward, near the top of the inside of the same page. The handwriting of these inscriptions has not been identified. The journal entries begin on the recto of the second leaf (the first flyleaf) and end on the recto of the back pastedown, making 105 numbered pages. Regular journal entries, inscribed in various shades of brown ink, continue through page 93. Pages 94 to 102 are blank except for page 98, which has JS’s name in graphite pencil at the top in JS’s handwriting. Pages 103–105 record subscriptions, which were evidently solicited during JS’s 26 February–28 March 1834 New York

Located in northeast region of U.S. Area settled by Dutch traders, 1620s; later governed by Britain, 1664–1776. Admitted to U.S. as state, 1788. Population in 1810 about 1,000,000; in 1820 about 1,400,000; in 1830 about 1,900,000; and in 1840 about 2,400,...

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mission, as well as a note apparently inscribed on 20 April 1834 in preparation for the conference held 20–21 April 1834 at Norton

Area first settled, 1814. Formed from Wolf Creek Township, 1818. Reported location of “great Mormon excitement,” 1832–1838. Population in 1830 about 650. Primarily populated by immigrants from New England states. Increased German Pennsylvanian immigration...

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, Ohio. The book has suffered from water and mud damage, evidenced in part by some extremely faded ink on page 2. Glue from tipping in a damaged leaf has also obscured several characters in the gutter of page 2.
The journal’s textual redactions and use marks, in graphite pencil, were made by later scribes who used the journal to produce the multivolume manuscript history of the church. This occurred in Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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, indicating the journal remained in JS’s possession. The journal is listed in Nauvoo and early Utah inventories of church records, indicating continuous custody.1

“Schedule of Church Records. Nauvoo 1846,” [1]; Historian’s Office, [7] “Historian’s Office Catalogue,” Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL; Johnson, Register of the Joseph Smith Collection, 7.  


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