43990773

History, 1838–1856, volume C-1 [2 November 1838–31 July 1842]

August 16 same time relieve him, so that he might attend to the business of translating. Moved, seconded and carried that the Conference approve of the instructions of President Smith, in relation to the twelve, and that they proceed accordingly, to attend to the duties of their Office. Moved seconded and carried unanimously, that every individual who shall hereafter be found trying to influence any emigrants belonging to the Church. either to buy of them (except provisions) or sell to them, (excepting the Church Agents) shall be immediately tried for fellowship, and dealt with as offenders, and unless they repent shall be cut off from the Church. President Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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then made some appropriate remarks on speculations. moved that the conference accept the doings of the twelve in designating certain individuals to certain Cities &c— When President Joseph Smith, remarked that the Conference had already sanctioned the doings of the twelve, and it belonged to their office to transact such business with the approbation of the first presidency, and he would then state what cities should now be built up— viz. Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
, Zarahemla

Located about one mile west of Mississippi River; area settled, by May 1839. Site for town selected by JS, 2 July 1839, and later confirmed by revelation, Mar. 1841. Iowa stake of LDS church organized by JS, by Oct. 1839. Stake name changed to Zarahemla, ...

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, Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
, Nashville

Settled by Isaac Galland, 1829. Undeveloped town site purchased by LDS church, 1839. Laid out and incorporated, 1841, but charter never adopted. Featured one of nine branches within Iowa Stake (later Zarahemla Stake). Branch consisted of eighty members, Aug...

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and Ramus

Area settled, 1826. Founded by Latter-day Saints, 1839–1840, following exodus from Missouri. Town platted, Aug. 1840. Post office established, Sept. 1840. Incorporated as Macedonia, Mar. 1843. Renamed Webster, 23 July 1847. Population in 1845 about 380. Crooked...

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. Resolved that this conference adjourn to the general Conference in October next— Closed with prayer by President Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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. Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

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, President. Elias Smith, Lorenzo Barnes, Clerks.”

19 August 1841 • Thursday

19. Thursday 19. Elders [Brigham] Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

View Full Bio
, [Heber C.] Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

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and [Willard] Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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went to Warsaw

Located at foot of Des Moines Rapids of Mississippi River at site of three military forts: Fort Johnson (1814), Cantonment Davis (1815–1818), and Fort Edwards (1816–1824). First settlers participated in fur trade. Important trade and shipping center. Post...

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and examined the Town plot of Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
which is situated about a mile South of the village of Warsaw

Located at foot of Des Moines Rapids of Mississippi River at site of three military forts: Fort Johnson (1814), Cantonment Davis (1815–1818), and Fort Edwards (1816–1824). First settlers participated in fur trade. Important trade and shipping center. Post...

More Info
, and made some arrangements with the Proprietors for building up the place. The plot designed for the City of Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
is the School Section, No. 16. and opposite the first permanent and good landing place on the Mississippi River

Principal U.S. river running southward from Itasca Lake, Minnesota, to Gulf of Mexico. Covered 3,160-mile course, 1839 (now about 2,350 miles). Drains about 1,100,000 square miles. Steamboat travel on Mississippi very important in 1830s and 1840s for shipping...

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below the falls. which is about two miles below the Warsaw Landing which is filling up with Sand bars. The brethren returned about eleven P.M. quite exhausted.

22 August 1841 • Sunday

22 Sunday 22. I preached at the Stand

Term usually refers to speaker’s stand located in one of three groves where JS and others often spoke. JS also preached at temple stand, temporary structure built at various times on east, west, and south walls of unfinished Nauvoo temple. See also “Grove...

More Info
— on Wars & desolations that await the nations.

25 August 1841 • Wednesday

25 Wednesday 25. I received the following letter (see Addenda book page 8.) and wrote the following answer to
Horace R. Hotchkiss

15 Apr. 1799–21 Apr. 1849. Merchant, land speculator. Born in East Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Heman Hotchkiss and Elizabeth Rowe. Moved to New Haven, New Haven Co., by 1815. Married Charlotte Austin Street, 22 Feb. 1824, in East Haven. Purchased...

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Esqre. New Haven Connecticut— Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
August 25. 1841. — — — — — — — — — — — Dr. Sir, yours of the 24th. ult. came to hand this day, The contents of which I duly appreciate, I presume you are well aware of the difficulties that occurred, before, and at, the execution of the writings in regard to the landed transaction, between us touching the annual payment of interest, If you have forgotten I will here remind you, You verbally agreed, on our refusal, and hesitancy to execute the notes for the payment for the Land; that you would not exact the payment of the interest that would accrue on them, under five years, and that you would not coerce the payment even then, to all this you pledged your honor, And upon an after arrangement you verbally agreed to take Land in some one of the Atlantic States; that would yield six per cent interest, (to you) both for the principal and interest, And in view of that matter I delegated My Brother Hyrum [Smith]

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, and Doctor Isaac Galland

15 May 1791–27 Sept. 1858. Merchant, postmaster, land speculator, doctor. Born at Somerset Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Matthew Galland and Hannah Fenno. Married first Nancy Harris, 22 Mar. 1811, in Madison Co., Ohio. Married second Margaret Knight, by 1816....

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, to go East and negociate for Lands, with our friends, and pay you off for the whole purchase that we made of you; But upon an interview with you, they learned that you were unwilling to enter into an arrangement according to the powers that I had delegated to them; That you would not receive any of the principal at all, but the interest alone, which we never considered ourselves, in honor or in justice, bound to pay under the expiration of five years. I presume you are no Stranger to the part of the City plot we bought [p. 1222]
<August 16> same time relieve him, so that he might attend to the business of translating.  Moved, seconded and carried that the Conference approve of the instructions of  President Smith, in relation to the twelve, and that they proceed accordingly, to  attend to the duties of their Office. Moved seconded and carried unanimously,  that every individual who shall hereafter be found trying to influence any emigrants  belonging to the Church. either to buy of them (except provisions) or sell to them,  (excepting the Church Agents) shall be immediately tried for fellowship, and dealt  with as offenders, and unless they repent shall be cut off from the Church. President  [Sidney] Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

View Full Bio
then made some appropriate remarks on speculations. moved that  the conference accept the doings of the twelve in designating certain individuals to  certain Cities &c— When President Joseph Smith, remarked that the Conference had  already sanctioned the doings of the twelve, and it belonged to their office to transact  such business with the approbation of the first presidency, and he would then state what cities  should now be built up— viz. Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
, Zarahemla

Located about one mile west of Mississippi River; area settled, by May 1839. Site for town selected by JS, 2 July 1839, and later confirmed by revelation, Mar. 1841. Iowa stake of LDS church organized by JS, by Oct. 1839. Stake name changed to Zarahemla, ...

More Info
, Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
, Nashville

Settled by Isaac Galland, 1829. Undeveloped town site purchased by LDS church, 1839. Laid out and incorporated, 1841, but charter never adopted. Featured one of nine branches within Iowa Stake (later Zarahemla Stake). Branch consisted of eighty members, Aug...

More Info
and Ramus

Area settled, 1826. Founded by Latter-day Saints, 1839–1840, following exodus from Missouri. Town platted, Aug. 1840. Post office established, Sept. 1840. Incorporated as Macedonia, Mar. 1843. Renamed Webster, 23 July 1847. Population in 1845 about 380. Crooked...

More Info
. Resolved that  this conference adjourn to the general Conference in October next— Closed with prayer by President  Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

View Full Bio
. Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

View Full Bio
, President. Elias Smith, Lorenzo Barnes, Clerks.”

19 August 1841 • Thursday

<19.> Thursday 19. Elders [Brigham] Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

View Full Bio
, [Heber C.] Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

View Full Bio
and [Willard] Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

View Full Bio
went to Warsaw

Located at foot of Des Moines Rapids of Mississippi River at site of three military forts: Fort Johnson (1814), Cantonment Davis (1815–1818), and Fort Edwards (1816–1824). First settlers participated in fur trade. Important trade and shipping center. Post...

More Info
and  examined the Town plot of Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
which is situated about a mile South of  the village of Warsaw

Located at foot of Des Moines Rapids of Mississippi River at site of three military forts: Fort Johnson (1814), Cantonment Davis (1815–1818), and Fort Edwards (1816–1824). First settlers participated in fur trade. Important trade and shipping center. Post...

More Info
, and made some arrangements with the Proprietors for  building up the place. The plot designed for the City of Warren

Platted on school section number 16, one mile south of Warsaw, summer 1841. Quorum of Twelve wrote epistle to Saints, 26 Aug. 1841, inviting immigrants to settle in Warren. Willard Richards moved to Warsaw and sold lots in Warren, Sept. 1841. Joseph Fielding...

More Info
is the School  Section, No. 16. and opposite the first permanent and good landing place on the  Mississippi River

Principal U.S. river running southward from Itasca Lake, Minnesota, to Gulf of Mexico. Covered 3,160-mile course, 1839 (now about 2,350 miles). Drains about 1,100,000 square miles. Steamboat travel on Mississippi very important in 1830s and 1840s for shipping...

More Info
below the falls. which is about two miles below the Warsaw  Landing which is filling up with Sand bars. The brethren returned about eleven  P.M. quite exhausted.

22 August 1841 • Sunday

<22> Sunday 22. I preached at the Stand

Term usually refers to speaker’s stand located in one of three groves where JS and others often spoke. JS also preached at temple stand, temporary structure built at various times on east, west, and south walls of unfinished Nauvoo temple. See also “Grove...

More Info
— on <Wars & desolations that await the nations.>

25 August 1841 • Wednesday

<25> Wednesday 25. I <received the following letter (see Addenda book page 8.) and> wrote the following <answer> to
Horace R. Hotchkiss

15 Apr. 1799–21 Apr. 1849. Merchant, land speculator. Born in East Haven, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Heman Hotchkiss and Elizabeth Rowe. Moved to New Haven, New Haven Co., by 1815. Married Charlotte Austin Street, 22 Feb. 1824, in East Haven. Purchased...

View Full Bio
Esqre. New Haven  Connecticut— Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
August 25. 1841. — — — — — — — — — — — Dr. Sir, yours of the  24th. ult. came to hand this day, The contents of which I duly appreciated, I presume  you are well aware of the difficulties that occurred, before, and at, the execution of  the writings in regard to the landed transaction, between us touching the annual  payment of interest, If you have forgotten I will here remind you, You verbally agreed,  on our refusal, and hesitancy to execute the notes for the payment for the Land; that you  would not exact the payment of the interest that would accrue on them, under five years,  and that you would not coerce the payment even then, to all this you pledged your  honor, And upon an after arrangement you verbally agreed to take Land in some  one of the Atlantic States; that would yield six per cent interest, (to you) both for  the principal and interest, And in view of that matter I delegated My Brother  Hyrum [Smith]

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

View Full Bio
, and Doctor Isaac Galland

15 May 1791–27 Sept. 1858. Merchant, postmaster, land speculator, doctor. Born at Somerset Co., Pennsylvania. Son of Matthew Galland and Hannah Fenno. Married first Nancy Harris, 22 Mar. 1811, in Madison Co., Ohio. Married second Margaret Knight, by 1816....

View Full Bio
, to go East and negociate for Lands, with our  friends, and pay you off for the whole purchase that we made of you; But upon  an interview with you, they learned that you were unwilling to enter into an  arrangement according to the powers that I had delegated to them; That you  would not receive any of the principal at all, but the interest alone, which we never  considered ourselves, in honor or in justice, bound to pay under the expiration of  five years. I presume you are no Stranger to the part of the City plot we bought [p. 1222]
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This document, volume C-1, is the third of six volumes of the “Manuscript History of the Church.” The collection was compiled over an eighteen-year span from 1838 to 1856 and covers the period from 23 December 1805 to 8 August 1844. The narrative in this volume commences on 2 November 1838 with JS and other church leaders being held prisoner by the “Governor

14 Dec. 1796–14 Mar. 1860. Bookkeeper, bank cashier, merchant, Indian agent and trader, lawyer, doctor, postmaster, politician. Born at Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver. Served in War of 1812. Moved to St. Louis, ca...

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’s forces” at Far West

Originally called Shoal Creek. Located fifty-five miles northeast of Independence. Surveyed 1823; first settled by whites, 1831. Site purchased, 8 Aug. 1836, before Caldwell Co. was organized for Latter-day Saints in Missouri. William W. Phelps and John Whitmer...

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, Missouri, and concludes with the death of Bishop Vinson Knight

14 Mar. 1804–31 July 1842. Farmer, druggist, school warden. Born at Norwich, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Rudolphus Knight and Rispah (Rizpah) Lee. Married Martha McBride, 14 Mar. 1826. Moved to Perrysburg, Cattaraugus Co., New York, by Mar. 1834....

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at Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

More Info
, Illinois, on 31 July 1842. For a more complete discussion of the entire six-volume work, see the general introduction to this history.
Volume C-1 was created beginning on or just after 24 February 1845 and its narrative completed on 3 May although work continued on the volume through 3 July of that year (Richards, Journal, 24 and 28 Feb. 1845; Historian’s Office, Journal, 3 May 1845; 3 and 4 July 1845). It is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock and contains 512 pages of primary text, plus 24 pages of addenda. Additional addenda for this volume were created at a later date in a separate volume, and will appear in this collection as a separate document. Compilers Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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and Thomas Bullock drew heavily from JS’s letters, discourses, and diary entries; meeting minutes; church and other periodicals and journals; and reminiscences, recollections, and letters of church members and other contacts. At JS’s behest, they had maintained the first-person, chronological-narrative format established in previous volumes, as if JS were the author. Brigham Young

1 June 1801–29 Aug. 1877. Carpenter, painter, glazier, colonizer. Born at Whitingham, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of John Young and Abigail (Nabby) Howe. Brought up in Methodist household; later joined Methodist church. Moved to Sherburne, Chenango Co., New...

View Full Bio
, Heber C. Kimball

14 June 1801–22 June 1868. Blacksmith, potter. Born at Sheldon, Franklin Co., Vermont. Son of Solomon Farnham Kimball and Anna Spaulding. Married Vilate Murray, 22 Nov. 1822, at Mendon, Monroe Co., New York. Member of Baptist church at Mendon, 1831. Baptized...

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, George A. Smith

26 June 1817–1 Sept. 1875. Born at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York. Son of John Smith and Clarissa Lyman. Baptized into LDS church by Joseph H. Wakefield, 10 Sept. 1832, at Potsdam. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, 1833. Labored on Kirtland temple...

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, and others reviewed and modified the manuscript prior to its eventual publication in the Salt Lake City newspaper Deseret News.
The historical narrative recorded in volume C-1 continued the account of JS’s life as prophet and president of the church. Critical events occurring within the forty-five-month period of this volume include the Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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Mormon War; subsequent legal trials of church leaders; expulsion of the Saints from Missouri; missionary efforts in England by the Twelve

Members of a governing body in the church, with special administrative and proselytizing responsibilities. A June 1829 revelation commanded Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to call twelve disciples, similar to the twelve apostles in the New Testament and ...

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and others; attempts by JS to obtain federal redress for the Missouri depredations; publication of the LDS Millennial Star in England; the migration of English converts to America; missionary efforts in other nations; the death of church patriarch Joseph Smith Sr.

12 July 1771–14 Sept. 1840. Cooper, farmer, teacher, merchant. Born at Topsfield, Essex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Nominal member of Congregationalist church at Topsfield. Married to Lucy Mack by Seth Austin, 24 Jan. 1796, at Tunbridge...

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; the establishment of the Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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city charter; the commencement of construction of the Nauvoo temple

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1841, commanded Saints to build temple and hotel (Nauvoo House). Cornerstone laid, 6 Apr. 1841. Saints volunteered labor, money, and other resources for temple construction. Construction directed by committee, which included Reynolds...

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; the Wisconsin “pinery”

Also known as pinery. Area near Black River where lumbering operation was established to provide timber for construction of Nauvoo temple, Nauvoo House, and other public buildings. Four mills established on Black River, ca. Sept. 1841: three near Black River...

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expedition that facilitated temple construction; the introduction of the doctrine of proxy baptism for deceased persons; the dedicatory prayer by Orson Hyde

8 Jan. 1805–28 Nov. 1878. Laborer, clerk, storekeeper, teacher, editor, businessman, lawyer, judge. Born at Oxford, New Haven Co., Connecticut. Son of Nathan Hyde and Sally Thorpe. Moved to Derby, New Haven Co., 1812. Moved to Kirtland, Geauga Co., Ohio, ...

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on the Mount of Olives in Palestine; publication of the “Book of Abraham” in the Nauvoo Times and Seasons; publication of the JS history often referred to as the “Wentworth letter;” the organization of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo; and the inception of Nauvoo-era temple endowment ceremonies.

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