26013

Journal, December 1841–December 1842

6 August 1842 • Saturday

Saturday 6th. Went over the river to Montrose

Located in southern part of county on western shore of Mississippi River. Area settled by Captain James White, 1832, following Black Hawk War. Federal government purchased land from White to create Fort Des Moines, 1834. Fort abandoned; remaining settlement...

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to witness the installation of officers of the Rising Sun Lodge,294

A Masonic lodge.  


Iowa

Area originally part of Louisiana Purchase, 1803. First permanent white settlements established, ca. 1833. Organized as territory, 1838, containing all of present-day Iowa, much of present-day Minnesota, and parts of North and South Dakota. Population in ...

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in company with Col. Brewer Gen. James Adams

24 Jan. 1783–11 Aug. 1843. Lawyer, judge, insurance agent, land speculator. Born at Simsbury, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of Parmenio Adams and Chloe. In New York militia, served as ensign, 1805; as lieutenant; as captain, 1807, and as major, 1811–1815...

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&c

7 August 1842 • Sunday

Sunday 7th. At home all day

8 August 1842 • Monday

Monday 8th. This A.M the Deputy Sheriff of Adams county in company with two other officers295

The principal arresting officer was Thomas King, undersheriff of Adams County. King was probably accompanied by James Pitman, constable of Adams County, who played a prominent role in the subsequent efforts to arrest JS. The third officer was most likely Edward Ford, who had been designated to receive the prisoner by the original requisition of Missouri governor Thomas Reynolds. (JS, Petition for writ of habeas corpus, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, JS Collection, CHL; Robison, Adams County, E–K:149; L–R:134; JS, Journal, 3 Sept. 1842; Thomas Reynolds, Requisition, 22 July 1842.)  


came with a warrant from Governor Thomas Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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296

The original warrants from Thomas Carlin for the arrests of JS and Orrin Porter Rockwell were retained by Thomas King; copies made for the Nauvoo Municipal Court date the originals to 2 August 1842. References in JS’s journal to Carlin’s “writ” or “warrant” are to his 2 August warrant for JS’s arrest. (Thomas Carlin, Writ, 2 Aug. 1842, Ex Parte JS for Accessory to Boggs Assault [C.C.D. Ill. 1843], copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; Orrin Porter Rockwell, Petition for writ of habeas corpus, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; JS, Journal, 31 Dec. 1842.)  


and arrested Joseph and O. P. Orrin Porter Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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. the latter being charged with shooting ex-Governor Lilburn W. Boggs

14 Dec. 1796–14 Mar. 1860. Bookkeeper, bank cashier, merchant, Indian agent and trader, lawyer, doctor, postmaster, politician. Born at Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver. Served in War of 1812. Moved to St. Louis, ca...

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of Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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with intent to kill on the evening of the 6th. of May last and Joseph with being accessary. The city council convened immediately and issued a writ of Habeus Corpus to stop them from taking Joseph & Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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away without a trial here.297

Writ of habeas corpus for JS, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; Writ of habeas corpus for Orrin Porter Rockwell, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL. The Nauvoo city charter, which was ratified by the Illinois legislature in December 1840, granted authority to the municipal court to issue writs of habeas corpus “in all cases arising under the ordinances of the city council.” Anticipating attempts by “Enemies” to subject the citizens of Nauvoo to “illegal Process,” the Nauvoo City Council passed an ordinance in July declaring that “no Citizen of this City shall be taken out of the City by any Writ without the privilege of investigation before the Municipal Court, and the benefit of a Writ of Habeas Corpus.” The city council also passed a statute on this date granting the Nauvoo Municipal Court the power to inquire into both proper procedure and merits of the case for any arrest warrant served in Nauvoo. The Nauvoo statutes were attempts to codify the broadest interpretation of the habeas corpus grant in the charter, with the goal to prevent the legal system from being used for “religious or other persecution.” (An Act to Incorporate the City of Nauvoo [16 Dec. 1840], Laws of the State of Illinois[1840–1841], p. 55, sec. 17; Nauvoo City Council Minute Book, 5 July 1842, 86–87; 8 Aug. 1842, 98–99.)  


The Deputy Sheriff hesitated complying with the writ of Habeus Corpus for some time on the ground (as he said) of not knowing wether this city had authority to issue such writ but after much consultation on the subject they finally agreed to leave the prisoners in the hands of the city Marshall

20 Apr. 1785–24 Nov. 1867. Surveyor. Born at Kingsbury, Washington Co., New York. Son of Newcomb Sherwood and a woman whose maiden name was Tolman (first name unidentified). Married first Jane J. McManagal (McMangle) of Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, ca. 1824...

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298 and returned to Quincy

Located on high limestone bluffs east of Mississippi River, about forty-five miles south of Nauvoo. Settled 1821. Adams Co. seat, 1825. Incorporated as town, 1834. Received city charter, 1840. Population in 1835 about 800; in 1840 about 2,300; and in 1845...

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to ascertain from the Governor

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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wether our charter gave the city jurisdiction over the case
Received a letter from Post Office which had been broke open and was much grieved at the meanness of its contents.

9 August 1842 • Tuesday

Tuesday 9th. In company with Judge James Ralston

12 Oct. 1807–9 May 1864. Soldier, lawyer, judge, politician. Born in Bourbon Co., Kentucky. Son of John Ralston and Elizabeth Neely. Served in Black Hawk War, 1832. Married first Jane S. Alexander, 1833, in Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Member of Illinois ...

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& Lawyer Stephen Powers

Ca. 1815–ca. Sept. 1851. Lawyer. Born in Ohio. Lived at Cuyahoga Falls, Portage Co., Ohio, before 1840. Married first the daughter of a Mrs. Bush, by 1840. Moved to North Akron, Summit Co., Ohio, by June 1840. Moved to Keokuk, Lee Co., Iowa Territory, by ...

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from Keokuk

Located near confluence of Mississippi and Des Moines rivers. First settled, 1820. Fur trading post established, 1828. Named Keokuk, 1829, after Sac Indian chief, who later visited JS in Nauvoo, 1841. Platted 1837. Incorporated 1847. Population in 1841 about...

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preparing for the return of the Sheriff. Prepared a writ of Habeus Corpus from the Master in Chancery.299

Illinois law specified that each county have a “master in Chancery”—a magistrate whose responsibilities included taking depositions, administering oaths, and, in the absence of the presiding circuit court judge, authorizing writs of habeas corpus. JS apparently decided against applying for a writ of habeas corpus from the master in chancery, perhaps because this would have been tacit admission that the Nauvoo Municipal Court did not have authority to issue writs of habeas corpus. (An Act to Provide for Issuing Writs of Ne Exeat and Habeas Corpus, and for Other Purposes [11 Feb. 1835], Laws of the State of Illinois [1834–1835], p. 32; “Persecution,” Times and Seasons, 15 Aug. 1842, 3:889.)  


10 August 1842 • Wednesday

Wednesday 10th. The Deputy Sheriff returned but could not find Joseph. He endeavoured to alarm sister Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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& the Brethren by his threats, but could not do it they understanding the nature of the Law in that case.300

The city marshal had no authority to keep JS in custody because he did not have the arrest warrant in his possession; Thomas King had taken the warrant back to Quincy, Illinois, to receive instruction from Governor Thomas Carlin. (JS, Journal, 8 Aug. and 31 Dec. 1842; “Persecution,” Times and Seasons,15 Aug. 1842, 3:886–889.)  


11 August 1842 • Thursday

Thursday 11th. This A.M. brother Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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entered into conversation with the Deputy upon the illegallity of the whole proceedings in reference to the arrest. After some remarks from both parties the Sherif acknowledged that he believed Joseph was innocent and that Governor Thomas Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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s course which he had pursued was unjustifiable and illegal. During the day Joseph who was at this time at Uncle John Smith

16 July 1781–23 May 1854. Farmer. Born at Derryfield (later Manchester), Rockingham Co., New Hampshire. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Member of Congregational Church. Appointed overseer of highways at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York, 1810. Married...

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s in Zarahemla

Located about one mile west of Mississippi River; area settled, by May 1839. Site for town selected by JS, 2 July 1839, and later confirmed by revelation, Mar. 1841. Iowa stake of LDS church organized by JS, by Oct. 1839. Stake name changed to Zarahemla, ...

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sent word that he wished to see Sister Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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bro’s Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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and others, with instructions to meet on the island

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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between Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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and Montrose

Located in southern part of county on western shore of Mississippi River. Area settled by Captain James White, 1832, following Black Hawk War. Federal government purchased land from White to create Fort Des Moines, 1834. Fort abandoned; remaining settlement...

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after Dark. Whereupon Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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, Hyrum

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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, Newel K. Whitney

3/5 Feb. 1795–23 Sept. 1850. Trader, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Moved to Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York, 1803. Merchant at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., New York, 1814. Mercantile clerk for...

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, George Miller

25 Nov. 1794–after July 1856. Carpenter, mill operator, lumber dealer, steamboat owner. Born near Stanardsville, Orange Co., Virginia. Son of John Miller and Margaret Pfeiffer. Moved to Augusta Co., Virginia, 1798; to Madison Co., Kentucky, 1806; to Boone...

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, Wm. Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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& Dimick B. Huntington

26 May 1808–1 Feb. 1879. Farmer, blacksmith, shoemaker, constable, coroner, deputy sheriff, Indian interpreter. Born at Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York. Son of William Huntington and Zina Baker. Married Fannie Maria Allen, 28 Apr. 1830. Baptized into LDS...

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met at the water side near the Bricks Store

Completed 1841. Opened for business, 5 Jan. 1842. Owned by JS, but managed mostly by others, after 1842. First floor housed JS’s general store and counting room, where tithing was received and recorded. On second floor, one of two small rooms served as JS...

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sometime after dark and proceeded in a Skiff to the islands

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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. We proceeded between the islands

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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untill we arrived near the lower end; and then hauled to shore. After waiting a very little while, the skiff arrived from the opposite shore, and in it; Joseph and bro. Erastus Derby

14 Sept. 1810–3 Dec. 1890. Tailor, carpenter, farmer, joiner. Born in Hawley, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Edward Darby and Ruth Phoebe Hitchcock. Moved to Ohio, by 1834. Married Ruhamah Burnham Knowlton, 10 Aug. 1834, in Carthage, Hamilton Co., Ohio...

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. A council was then held in the skiffs, and various statements set forth in regard to the state of things. It was ascertained that the Governor

6 Oct. 1780–21 Sept. 1852. Lawyer, politician. Born at Bromley Bridge (later Burnt Mills), Somerset Co., New Jersey. Son of Rowland Chambers and Phoebe Mullican. Lived at Mason Co., Kentucky, 1794–1841. Married first Margaret Taylor, 16 June 1803, at Mason...

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of Iowa

Area originally part of Louisiana Purchase, 1803. First permanent white settlements established, ca. 1833. Organized as territory, 1838, containing all of present-day Iowa, much of present-day Minnesota, and parts of North and South Dakota. Population in ...

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,301

The Iowa territorial governor was John Chambers.  


had issued a Warrant for the apprehension of Joseph, and O. P. Orrin Porter Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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;302

Church members learned three days later that no arrest warrant had been issued in Iowa Territory. However, following Missouri governor Thomas Reynolds’s requisition of 20 August 1842 to Governor John Chambers, the latter did issue a warrant. Chambers wrote in a letter dated 10 March 1843 that a warrant was issued and returned unserved and that he would take no further action unless Missouri’s governor sent another requisition. (JS, Journal, 14 Aug. 1842; State of Missouri, Office of the Secretary of State, Commissions Division, Register of Civil Proceedings, vol. A, p. 175; John Chambers, Burlington, Iowa Territory, to John Cowan, 10 Mar. 1843, JS Office Papers, CHL.)  


and that the sheriff of Lee County

First permanent settlement established, 1820. Organized 1837. Population in 1838 about 2,800; in 1840 about 6,100; in 1844 about 9,800; and in 1846 about 13,000. Following expulsion from Missouri, 1838–1839, many Saints found refuge in eastern Iowa Territory...

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,303

Hawkins Taylor. Taylor was replaced four days later by William Stotts. (Lee Co., IA, County Commissioner’s Reports, 1840–1856, 15 Aug. 1842, vol. 2, p. 182, microfilm 1,954,904, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; History of Lee County, Iowa, 547.)  


was expected down immediately. Very strong evidence was also manifested that Governor Thomas Reynolds

12 Mar. 1796–9 Feb. 1844. Attorney, politician, judge. Born at Mason Co. (later Bracken Co.), Kentucky. Son of Nathaniel Reynolds and Catherine Vernon. Admitted to Kentucky bar, 1817. Moved to Illinois, by 1818. Served as clerk of Illinois House of Representatives...

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of Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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was not acquainted with these proceedings. That Ex-Governor Lilburn W. Boggs

14 Dec. 1796–14 Mar. 1860. Bookkeeper, bank cashier, merchant, Indian agent and trader, lawyer, doctor, postmaster, politician. Born at Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver. Served in War of 1812. Moved to St. Louis, ca...

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had made oath before a justice of the peace or a Judge and that the Judge had made the requisition and not Governor Reynolds

12 Mar. 1796–9 Feb. 1844. Attorney, politician, judge. Born at Mason Co. (later Bracken Co.), Kentucky. Son of Nathaniel Reynolds and Catherine Vernon. Admitted to Kentucky bar, 1817. Moved to Illinois, by 1818. Served as clerk of Illinois House of Representatives...

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.304

Boggs swore an affidavit before Jackson County justice of the peace Samuel Weston on 20 July 1842. In spite of what JS’s companions had heard, it was Missouri governor Reynolds who made the requisition demanding that Illinois governor Carlin extradite JS to Missouri for trial. (Lilburn W. Boggs, Affidavit, 20 July 1842; Thomas Reynolds, Requisition, 22 July 1842.)  


Also that the writ issued by Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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was illigal and unjustifiable305

The “writ” refers to the warrant for JS’s arrest. The constitutional requirement for extradition was being charged with committing a crime in one state and fleeing to another state. Boggs’s affidavit charged JS with being an “accessary before the fact” in the attempt on his life and identified JS as a “citizen or resident of the State of Illinois” but did not charge him with committing a crime in Missouri and then fleeing to Illinois. (Thomas Carlin, Writ, 2 Aug. 1842, Ex Parte JS for Accessory to Boggs Assault [C.C.D. Ill. 1843], copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; U.S. Constitution, art. 4, sec. 2; Lilburn W. Boggs, Affidavit, 20 July 1842.)  


[p. 129]

6 August 1842 • Saturday

Saturday 6th. Went over the river to Montrose

Located in southern part of county on western shore of Mississippi River. Area settled by Captain James White, 1832, following Black Hawk War. Federal government purchased land from White to create Fort Des Moines, 1834. Fort abandoned; remaining settlement...

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to witness the installation of officers of  the Rising Sun Lodge,294

A Masonic lodge.  


Iowa

Area originally part of Louisiana Purchase, 1803. First permanent white settlements established, ca. 1833. Organized as territory, 1838, containing all of present-day Iowa, much of present-day Minnesota, and parts of North and South Dakota. Population in ...

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in company with Col. Brewer Gen. [James] Adams

24 Jan. 1783–11 Aug. 1843. Lawyer, judge, insurance agent, land speculator. Born at Simsbury, Hartford Co., Connecticut. Son of Parmenio Adams and Chloe. In New York militia, served as ensign, 1805; as lieutenant; as captain, 1807, and as major, 1811–1815...

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&c

7 August 1842 • Sunday

Sunday 7th. At home all day

8 August 1842 • Monday

Monday 8th. This A.M the Deputy Sheriff of Adams county in company with two other officers295

The principal arresting officer was Thomas King, undersheriff of Adams County. King was probably accompanied by James Pitman, constable of Adams County, who played a prominent role in the subsequent efforts to arrest JS. The third officer was most likely Edward Ford, who had been designated to receive the prisoner by the original requisition of Missouri governor Thomas Reynolds. (JS, Petition for writ of habeas corpus, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, JS Collection, CHL; Robison, Adams County, E–K:149; L–R:134; JS, Journal, 3 Sept. 1842; Thomas Reynolds, Requisition, 22 July 1842.)  


came  with a warrant from Governor [Thomas] Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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296

The original warrants from Thomas Carlin for the arrests of JS and Orrin Porter Rockwell were retained by Thomas King; copies made for the Nauvoo Municipal Court date the originals to 2 August 1842. References in JS’s journal to Carlin’s “writ” or “warrant” are to his 2 August warrant for JS’s arrest. (Thomas Carlin, Writ, 2 Aug. 1842, Ex Parte JS for Accessory to Boggs Assault [C.C.D. Ill. 1843], copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; Orrin Porter Rockwell, Petition for writ of habeas corpus, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; JS, Journal, 31 Dec. 1842.)  


and arrested Joseph and O. P. [Orrin Porter] Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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. the latter  being charged with shooting ex-Governor [Lilburn W.] Boggs

14 Dec. 1796–14 Mar. 1860. Bookkeeper, bank cashier, merchant, Indian agent and trader, lawyer, doctor, postmaster, politician. Born at Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver. Served in War of 1812. Moved to St. Louis, ca...

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of Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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with intent to kill on the evening  of the 6th. of May last and Joseph with being accessary. The city council convened  immediately and issued a writ of Habeus Corpus to stop them from taking Joseph &  Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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away without a trial here.297

Writ of habeas corpus for JS, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; Writ of habeas corpus for Orrin Porter Rockwell, 8 Aug. 1842, copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL. The Nauvoo city charter, which was ratified by the Illinois legislature in December 1840, granted authority to the municipal court to issue writs of habeas corpus “in all cases arising under the ordinances of the city council.” Anticipating attempts by “Enemies” to subject the citizens of Nauvoo to “illegal Process,” the Nauvoo City Council passed an ordinance in July declaring that “no Citizen of this City shall be taken out of the City by any Writ without the privilege of investigation before the Municipal Court, and the benefit of a Writ of Habeas Corpus.” The city council also passed a statute on this date granting the Nauvoo Municipal Court the power to inquire into both proper procedure and merits of the case for any arrest warrant served in Nauvoo. The Nauvoo statutes were attempts to codify the broadest interpretation of the habeas corpus grant in the charter, with the goal to prevent the legal system from being used for “religious or other persecution.” (An Act to Incorporate the City of Nauvoo [16 Dec. 1840], Laws of the State of Illinois[1840–1841], p. 55, sec. 17; Nauvoo City Council Minute Book, 5 July 1842, 86–87; 8 Aug. 1842, 98–99.)  


The Deputy Sheriff hesitated complying with  the writ of Habeus Corpus for some time on the ground (as he said) of not knowing  wether this city had authority to issue such writ but after much consultation  on the subject they finally agreed to leave the prisoners in the hands of the city  Marshall

20 Apr. 1785–24 Nov. 1867. Surveyor. Born at Kingsbury, Washington Co., New York. Son of Newcomb Sherwood and a woman whose maiden name was Tolman (first name unidentified). Married first Jane J. McManagal (McMangle) of Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland, ca. 1824...

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298 and returned to Quincy

Located on high limestone bluffs east of Mississippi River, about forty-five miles south of Nauvoo. Settled 1821. Adams Co. seat, 1825. Incorporated as town, 1834. Received city charter, 1840. Population in 1835 about 800; in 1840 about 2,300; and in 1845...

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to ascertain from the Governor

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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wether  our charter gave the city jurisdiction over the case
Received a letter from Post Office which had been broke open and was much  grieved at the meanness of its contents.

9 August 1842 • Tuesday

Tuesday 9th. In company with Judge [James] Ralston

12 Oct. 1807–9 May 1864. Soldier, lawyer, judge, politician. Born in Bourbon Co., Kentucky. Son of John Ralston and Elizabeth Neely. Served in Black Hawk War, 1832. Married first Jane S. Alexander, 1833, in Quincy, Adams Co., Illinois. Member of Illinois ...

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& Lawyer [Stephen] Powers

Ca. 1815–ca. Sept. 1851. Lawyer. Born in Ohio. Lived at Cuyahoga Falls, Portage Co., Ohio, before 1840. Married first the daughter of a Mrs. Bush, by 1840. Moved to North Akron, Summit Co., Ohio, by June 1840. Moved to Keokuk, Lee Co., Iowa Territory, by ...

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from Keokuk

Located near confluence of Mississippi and Des Moines rivers. First settled, 1820. Fur trading post established, 1828. Named Keokuk, 1829, after Sac Indian chief, who later visited JS in Nauvoo, 1841. Platted 1837. Incorporated 1847. Population in 1841 about...

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preparing for  the return of the Sheriff. Prepared a writ of Habeus Corpus from the Master  in Chancery.299

Illinois law specified that each county have a “master in Chancery”—a magistrate whose responsibilities included taking depositions, administering oaths, and, in the absence of the presiding circuit court judge, authorizing writs of habeas corpus. JS apparently decided against applying for a writ of habeas corpus from the master in chancery, perhaps because this would have been tacit admission that the Nauvoo Municipal Court did not have authority to issue writs of habeas corpus. (An Act to Provide for Issuing Writs of Ne Exeat and Habeas Corpus, and for Other Purposes [11 Feb. 1835], Laws of the State of Illinois [1834–1835], p. 32; “Persecution,” Times and Seasons, 15 Aug. 1842, 3:889.)  


10 August 1842 • Wednesday

Wednesday 10th. The Deputy Sheriff returned but could not find Joseph. He endeavoured to  alarm sister Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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& the Brethren by his threats, but could not do it  they understanding the nature of the Law in that case.300

The city marshal had no authority to keep JS in custody because he did not have the arrest warrant in his possession; Thomas King had taken the warrant back to Quincy, Illinois, to receive instruction from Governor Thomas Carlin. (JS, Journal, 8 Aug. and 31 Dec. 1842; “Persecution,” Times and Seasons,15 Aug. 1842, 3:886–889.)  


11 August 1842 • Thursday

Thursday 11th. This A.M. brother Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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entered into conversation with the Deputy upon the  illegallity of the whole proceedings in reference to the arrest. After some  remarks from both parties the Sherif acknowledged that he believed  Joseph was innocent and that Governor [Thomas] Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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s course which he  had pursued was unjustifiable and illegal. During the day Joseph  who was at this time at Uncle John Smith

16 July 1781–23 May 1854. Farmer. Born at Derryfield (later Manchester), Rockingham Co., New Hampshire. Son of Asael Smith and Mary Duty. Member of Congregational Church. Appointed overseer of highways at Potsdam, St. Lawrence Co., New York, 1810. Married...

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s in Zarahemla

Located about one mile west of Mississippi River; area settled, by May 1839. Site for town selected by JS, 2 July 1839, and later confirmed by revelation, Mar. 1841. Iowa stake of LDS church organized by JS, by Oct. 1839. Stake name changed to Zarahemla, ...

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sent  word that he wished to see Sister Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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bro’s Hyrum Smith

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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 and others, with instructions to meet on the island

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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between Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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 and Montrose

Located in southern part of county on western shore of Mississippi River. Area settled by Captain James White, 1832, following Black Hawk War. Federal government purchased land from White to create Fort Des Moines, 1834. Fort abandoned; remaining settlement...

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after Dark. Whereupon Emma

10 July 1804–30 Apr. 1879. Scribe, editor, boardinghouse operator, clothier. Born at Willingborough Township (later in Harmony), Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania. Daughter of Isaac Hale and Elizabeth Lewis. Member of Methodist church at Harmony (later in Oakland...

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, Hyrum

9 Feb. 1800–27 June 1844. Farmer, cooper. Born at Tunbridge, Orange Co., Vermont. Son of Joseph Smith Sr. and Lucy Mack. Moved to Randolph, Orange Co., 1802; to Tunbridge, before May 1803; to Royalton, Windsor Co., Vermont, 1804; to Sharon, Windsor Co., by...

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, Wm. Law

8 Sept. 1809–12/19 Jan. 1892. Merchant, millwright, physician. Born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland. Son of Richard Law and Ann Hunter. Immigrated to U.S. and settled in Springfield Township, Mercer Co., Pennsylvania, by 1820. Moved to Delaware Township, Mercer Co...

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, N[ewel] K. Whitney

3/5 Feb. 1795–23 Sept. 1850. Trader, merchant. Born at Marlborough, Windham Co., Vermont. Son of Samuel Whitney and Susanna Kimball. Moved to Fairfield, Herkimer Co., New York, 1803. Merchant at Plattsburg, Clinton Co., New York, 1814. Mercantile clerk for...

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,  George Miller

25 Nov. 1794–after July 1856. Carpenter, mill operator, lumber dealer, steamboat owner. Born near Stanardsville, Orange Co., Virginia. Son of John Miller and Margaret Pfeiffer. Moved to Augusta Co., Virginia, 1798; to Madison Co., Kentucky, 1806; to Boone...

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, Wm. Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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& Dimick B. Huntington

26 May 1808–1 Feb. 1879. Farmer, blacksmith, shoemaker, constable, coroner, deputy sheriff, Indian interpreter. Born at Watertown, Jefferson Co., New York. Son of William Huntington and Zina Baker. Married Fannie Maria Allen, 28 Apr. 1830. Baptized into LDS...

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met at the water side  near the Bricks Store

Completed 1841. Opened for business, 5 Jan. 1842. Owned by JS, but managed mostly by others, after 1842. First floor housed JS’s general store and counting room, where tithing was received and recorded. On second floor, one of two small rooms served as JS...

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sometime after dark and proceeded in a Skiff to  the islands

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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. We proceeded between the islands

Two tree-covered islands located in Mississippi River between Nauvoo, Illinois, and Montrose, Iowa Territory. Important source of wood for Saints. JS hid on islands, Aug. 1842, while Missouri authorities sought to extradite him. Emma Smith, accompanied by...

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untill we arrived near  the lower end; and then hauled to shore. After waiting a very little while,  the skiff arrived from the opposite shore, and in it; Joseph and bro. [Erastus] Derby

14 Sept. 1810–3 Dec. 1890. Tailor, carpenter, farmer, joiner. Born in Hawley, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Edward Darby and Ruth Phoebe Hitchcock. Moved to Ohio, by 1834. Married Ruhamah Burnham Knowlton, 10 Aug. 1834, in Carthage, Hamilton Co., Ohio...

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.  A council was then held in the skiffs, and various statements set forth  in regard to the state of things. It was ascertained that the Governor

6 Oct. 1780–21 Sept. 1852. Lawyer, politician. Born at Bromley Bridge (later Burnt Mills), Somerset Co., New Jersey. Son of Rowland Chambers and Phoebe Mullican. Lived at Mason Co., Kentucky, 1794–1841. Married first Margaret Taylor, 16 June 1803, at Mason...

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of Iowa

Area originally part of Louisiana Purchase, 1803. First permanent white settlements established, ca. 1833. Organized as territory, 1838, containing all of present-day Iowa, much of present-day Minnesota, and parts of North and South Dakota. Population in ...

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,301

The Iowa territorial governor was John Chambers.  


 had issued a Warrant for the apprehension of Joseph, and O. P. [Orrin Porter] Rockwell

June 1814–9 June 1878. Ferry operator, herdsman, farmer. Born in Belchertown, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Orin Rockwell and Sarah Witt. Moved to Farmington (later in Manchester), Ontario Co., New York, 1817. Neighbor to JS. Baptized into LDS church...

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;302

Church members learned three days later that no arrest warrant had been issued in Iowa Territory. However, following Missouri governor Thomas Reynolds’s requisition of 20 August 1842 to Governor John Chambers, the latter did issue a warrant. Chambers wrote in a letter dated 10 March 1843 that a warrant was issued and returned unserved and that he would take no further action unless Missouri’s governor sent another requisition. (JS, Journal, 14 Aug. 1842; State of Missouri, Office of the Secretary of State, Commissions Division, Register of Civil Proceedings, vol. A, p. 175; John Chambers, Burlington, Iowa Territory, to John Cowan, 10 Mar. 1843, JS Office Papers, CHL.)  


 and that the sheriff of Lee County

First permanent settlement established, 1820. Organized 1837. Population in 1838 about 2,800; in 1840 about 6,100; in 1844 about 9,800; and in 1846 about 13,000. Following expulsion from Missouri, 1838–1839, many Saints found refuge in eastern Iowa Territory...

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,303

Hawkins Taylor. Taylor was replaced four days later by William Stotts. (Lee Co., IA, County Commissioner’s Reports, 1840–1856, 15 Aug. 1842, vol. 2, p. 182, microfilm 1,954,904, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL; History of Lee County, Iowa, 547.)  


was expected down immediately.  Very strong evidence was also manifested that Governor [Thomas] Reynolds

12 Mar. 1796–9 Feb. 1844. Attorney, politician, judge. Born at Mason Co. (later Bracken Co.), Kentucky. Son of Nathaniel Reynolds and Catherine Vernon. Admitted to Kentucky bar, 1817. Moved to Illinois, by 1818. Served as clerk of Illinois House of Representatives...

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of  Missouri

Area acquired by U.S. in Louisiana Purchase, 1803, and established as territory, 1812. Missouri Compromise, 1820, admitted Missouri as slave state, 1821. Population in 1830 about 140,000; in 1836 about 240,000; and in 1840 about 380,000. Mormon missionaries...

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was not acquainted with these proceedings. That Ex-Governor  [Lilburn W.] Boggs

14 Dec. 1796–14 Mar. 1860. Bookkeeper, bank cashier, merchant, Indian agent and trader, lawyer, doctor, postmaster, politician. Born at Lexington, Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of John M. Boggs and Martha Oliver. Served in War of 1812. Moved to St. Louis, ca...

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had made oath before a justice of the peace or a Judge and that  the Judge had made the requisition and not Governor Reynolds

12 Mar. 1796–9 Feb. 1844. Attorney, politician, judge. Born at Mason Co. (later Bracken Co.), Kentucky. Son of Nathaniel Reynolds and Catherine Vernon. Admitted to Kentucky bar, 1817. Moved to Illinois, by 1818. Served as clerk of Illinois House of Representatives...

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.304

Boggs swore an affidavit before Jackson County justice of the peace Samuel Weston on 20 July 1842. In spite of what JS’s companions had heard, it was Missouri governor Reynolds who made the requisition demanding that Illinois governor Carlin extradite JS to Missouri for trial. (Lilburn W. Boggs, Affidavit, 20 July 1842; Thomas Reynolds, Requisition, 22 July 1842.)  


 Also that the writ issued by Carlin

18 July 1789–14 Feb. 1852. Ferry owner, farmer, sheriff, politician. Born in Fayette Co., Kentucky. Son of Thomas Carlin and Elizabeth Evans. Baptist. Moved to Missouri, by 1803. Moved to Illinois, by 1812. Served in War of 1812. Married Rebecca Hewitt, 13...

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was illigal and unjustifiable305

The “writ” refers to the warrant for JS’s arrest. The constitutional requirement for extradition was being charged with committing a crime in one state and fleeing to another state. Boggs’s affidavit charged JS with being an “accessary before the fact” in the attempt on his life and identified JS as a “citizen or resident of the State of Illinois” but did not charge him with committing a crime in Missouri and then fleeing to Illinois. (Thomas Carlin, Writ, 2 Aug. 1842, Ex Parte JS for Accessory to Boggs Assault [C.C.D. Ill. 1843], copy, Nauvoo, IL, Records, CHL; U.S. Constitution, art. 4, sec. 2; Lilburn W. Boggs, Affidavit, 20 July 1842.)  


[p. 129]
PreviousNext
JS, Journal, Dec. 1841–Dec. 1842; handwriting of William Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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, Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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, Eliza R. Snow

21 Jan. 1804–5 Dec. 1887. Poet, teacher, seamstress, milliner. Born in Becket, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Oliver Snow and Rosetta Leonora Pettibone. Moved to Mantua, Trumbull Co., Ohio, ca. 1806. Member of Baptist church. Baptized into LDS ...

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, and Erastus Derby

14 Sept. 1810–3 Dec. 1890. Tailor, carpenter, farmer, joiner. Born in Hawley, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Edward Darby and Ruth Phoebe Hitchcock. Moved to Ohio, by 1834. Married Ruhamah Burnham Knowlton, 10 Aug. 1834, in Carthage, Hamilton Co., Ohio...

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; signatures of William Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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and Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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; 90 pages; in “The Book of the Law of the Lord,” Record Book, 1841–1845, CHL. Includes shorthand; also includes redactions and use marks.
JS’s journal for December 1841–December 1842 was inscribed in a large, leather-bound blank book made with thick paper. The paper bears a star-shaped watermark in the middle of each leaf and was printed with forty-seven blue lines on each side. The text block was originally formed with thirty gatherings of eight leaves each. The second gathering, however, has only six leaves. This six-leaf gathering was either a binding error or one sheet came loose from the binding before the book was inscribed (the book’s inscription and pagination runs through this gathering without skipping any text or page numbers). The gatherings were sewn all along. Each set of front and back endpapers consisted of a gathering of four leaves of unlined paper, but only two leaves are now extant in the back gathering. The trimmed pages measure 16¼ × 10½ inches (41 × 27 cm). Headbands were sewn onto the text block. The exterior pages of the endpapers are joined to the pasteboards with a strip of pink cloth. Marbled papers featuring a shell pattern with green body and veins of red and yellow are glued to the inside covers of the boards and to the exterior page of each gathering of endpapers. The leaf edges are stained green. The text block is bound in a ledger style to the boards. The spine was constructed with four false raised bands demarcating five panels. The boards and spine are covered in suede leather with additional leather strips over the top and bottom of the book. The suede leather was blind tooled on the outside covers, the raised bands of the spine, and the turned-in edges on the inside cover. The additional leather strips, which also cover the first and fifth panels of the spine, are embossed with dual lines and vegetal designs along the borders and have gold line filling. The spine is further embossed with the number “6” in 20-point type on the fifth panel. The second and fourth panels have black-painted squares of paper glued to them. These feature gold lining and decoration at the top and bottom. The completed volume measures 17 × 11 × 2¼ inches (43 × 28 × 6 cm) and includes 244 free leaves. A penciled inscription at the inside top corner of page [ii]—the verso of the front marbled flyleaf—gives what appears to be an expensive price for this high-quality blank book: “bth | 10.00”.
Robert B. Thompson

1 Oct. 1811–27 Aug. 1841. Clerk, editor. Born in Great Driffield, Yorkshire, England. Member of Methodist church. Immigrated to Upper Canada, 1834. Baptized into LDS church by Parley P. Pratt, May 1836, in Upper Canada. Ordained an elder by John Taylor, 22...

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inscribed nine revelations in the book on the first twenty-three pages of lined paper. Willard Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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made minor revisions to these revelation texts. Apparently either Richards or Thompson inscribed page numbers on pages 3­–18, beginning at the first page of lined paper, in a stylized script. Richards inscribed page numbers on pages 19–25 as well as on the next several dozen pages—which included journal entries for JS and records of donations in cash and in kind for the construction of the Nauvoo temple

JS revelation, dated Jan. 1841, commanded Saints to build temple and hotel (Nauvoo House). Cornerstone laid, 6 Apr. 1841. Saints volunteered labor, money, and other resources for temple construction. Construction directed by committee, which included Reynolds...

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. At some point page [1], the recto of the last leaf of unlined endpaper in the front of the book, was inscribed with a title: “THE | BOOK | of the | LAW | of the | LORD”. Because these words are hand lettered in various ornate styles, the handwriting cannot be identified. A matching title appears on the spine of the volume: the square label of black paper on the second panel of the spine bears a smaller square label of white paper with a hand-lettered inscription: “LAW | — of the — | LORD.” Willard Richards inscribed pages 26–126 of the book, with help from William Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

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on pages 27–28 and 72–87. Clayton inscribed the rest of the volume, pages 127–477, with help from Erastus Derby

14 Sept. 1810–3 Dec. 1890. Tailor, carpenter, farmer, joiner. Born in Hawley, Hampshire Co., Massachusetts. Son of Edward Darby and Ruth Phoebe Hitchcock. Moved to Ohio, by 1834. Married Ruhamah Burnham Knowlton, 10 Aug. 1834, in Carthage, Hamilton Co., Ohio...

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on pages 168–171 and from Eliza R. Snow

21 Jan. 1804–5 Dec. 1887. Poet, teacher, seamstress, milliner. Born in Becket, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts. Daughter of Oliver Snow and Rosetta Leonora Pettibone. Moved to Mantua, Trumbull Co., Ohio, ca. 1806. Member of Baptist church. Baptized into LDS ...

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on pages 189–190 and 192–201. These clerks and scribes generally paginated the book and inscribed dateline page headers along the way as they inscribed its texts.1

The page numbers on pages 19–71, 86–90, and 122–125 are in the handwriting of Willard Richards; on pages 72–85, 91–121, 126–167, and 171–477, in the handwriting of William Clayton; and on pages 168–170, in the handwriting of Erastus Derby. There are two pages numbered 453. Pages 476–477 constitute the last leaf of lined paper. The headers generally consist of a year or a month and year. The headers inscribed on pages 26–27, 29–71, 88–95, 119, and 121–126 are in the handwriting of Richards; the headers inscribed on pages 28, 72–87, 96–118, 120, 127–167, and 172–215 are in the handwriting of Clayton; pages 168–171, which were inscribed by Derby, have no headers. A few other pages are missing headers.  


The donation records constitute the bulk of the volume. The journal entries are inscribed on pages 26, 31, 33, 36, 39, 43, 44, 48, 56–61, 66–67, 88–95, 122–135, and 164–215. As is also the case with the pages bearing donation records, many of the pages bearing journal entries have vertical margin lines inscribed in graphite. The journal entries themselves are inscribed in ink that is now brown. Pages 165–181, however, either include or are entirely in blue ink. Some of the entries begin with a descriptive heading as well as a dateline. The entry for 6 January 1842, for example, features the large heading “The New Year”. Page 58 features the large double underlined heading “Journal of President Joseph”. Many of the entries are divided by horizontal lines. Where groups of journal entries span several pages, notes written at the beginning and end of these spans reference the previous or succeeding pages of journal entries.2

For example, page 135 points the reader to page 164, which begins by noting the continuation from page 135.  


At various stages in the production of the volume, Richards

24 June 1804–11 Mar. 1854. Teacher, lecturer, doctor, clerk, printer, editor, postmaster. Born at Hopkinton, Middlesex Co., Massachusetts. Son of Joseph Richards and Rhoda Howe. Moved to Richmond, Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 1813. Moved to Chatham, Columbia...

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and Clayton

17 July 1814–4 Dec. 1879. Bookkeeper, clerk. Born at Charock Moss, Penwortham, Lancashire, England. Son of Thomas Clayton and Ann Critchley. Married Ruth Moon, 9 Oct. 1836, at Penwortham. Baptized into LDS church by Heber C. Kimball, 21 Oct. 1837, in River...

View Full Bio
signed their names to their work (pages 126, 181, 215).
The volume contains a number of redactions that were made as the journal entries were later revised for inclusion in the “History of Joseph Smith” published in Mormon newspapers in the mid-nineteenth century.3

This serialized history drew on the journals herein, beginning with the 4 July 1855 issue of the Deseret News and with the 3 January 1857 issue of the LDS Millennial Star.  


Most of these redactions, made in graphite, were subsequently erased.4

Most of these now-erased graphite inscriptions are recoverable with bright white light and magnification. Pages 209–215, which were not erased, represent the state of the journal entries generally when they were used for drafting the “History of Joseph Smith.”  


The upper left-hand corner of page 3 bears the graphite inscription “6”, a redactive note on page 43 is inscribed in purple pencil, and red-penciled “X”s appear in the margins next to entries on pages 164 and 180. Notes written on three white and three blue slips of paper of various sizes have been inserted in various places, as well as a clipped portion of a Nauvoo

Principal gathering place for Saints following expulsion from Missouri. Beginning in 1839, LDS church purchased lands in earlier settlement of Commerce and planned settlement of Commerce City, as well as surrounding areas. Served as church headquarters, 1839...

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-era elder’s certificate form with no notes (apparently just a placeholder). There are also two leaves of pink paper just inside the front of the volume. All of these slips and leaves of paper are loose and appear to have been added to the book subsequent to its use as a journal.
The book is intricately related to its successor volume, the 1844–1846 donation record, and to a volume that indexed the donation records.5

Tithing and Donation Record, 1844–1846, CHL; Trustee-in-trust, Index and Accounts, 1841–1847, CHL.  


The “Law of the Lord” is listed as such in inventories of church records made in Salt Lake City, Utah, in the 1850s. These show that the volume was held for a time in the office of church president Brigham Young.6

Historian’s Office, “Inventory. Historian’s Office. 4th April 1855,” [1]; Historian’s Office, “Inventory. Historians Office. G. S. L. City April 1.1857,” [1]; Historian’s Office, “Historian’s Office Inventory G. S. L. City March 19. 1858,” [1]; Historian’s Office, “Historian’s Office Catalogue Book March 1858,” [11], Historian’s Office, Catalogs and Inventories, 1846–1904, CHL.  


In 1880, John Taylor

1 Nov. 1808–25 July 1887. Preacher, editor, publisher, politician. Born at Milnthorpe, Westmoreland Co., England. Son of James Taylor and Agnes Taylor, members of Church of England. Around age sixteen, joined Methodists and was local preacher. Migrated from...

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, president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, carried the book to a stake Relief Society conference in Salt Lake City.7

Emmeline B. Wells, “Salt Lake Stake Relief Society Conference,” Women’s Exponent, 1 July 1880, 9:22.  


At some point the book was marked on the spine with an archival sticker, which was later removed. The book eventually was housed with the papers of Joseph Fielding Smith, apparently during his tenure as church historian and recorder (1921–1970), and then became part of the First Presidency’s papers when he became church president in 1970.8

“Inventory of President Joseph Fielding Smith’s Safe,” 23 May 1970, First Presidency, General Administration Files, CHL.  


In 2010, the First Presidency gave custody of the book to the Church History Library.9

Letter of transfer, Salt Lake City, UT, 8 Jan. 2010, CHL.  


This evidence indicates continuous institutional custody and authenticity.

Facts