26104

Revelation, 7 May 1831 [D&C 49]

from the begining & that which I have promised I have so fulfilled & the Nations of the earth shall bow to it & if not of them selves they shall come down for that which is now exalted of itself shall be laid low of power. wherefore I give unto you a commandment

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
that ye go among this People & say unto them like unto mine Apostle

A title indicating one sent forth to preach; later designated as a specific ecclesiastical and priesthood office. By 1830, JS and Oliver Cowdery were designated as apostles. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church explained that an “apostle is an elder...

View Glossary
of old whose name was Peter believe on the name of the Lord Jesus who was on the Earth & is to come the begining & the end. Repent & be baptized

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
in the name of Jesus christ according to the holy commandment for the remission of sins & whoso doeth this shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost8

See Acts 2:38.  


by the laying on of the hands

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
of the Elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
of this Church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
. & again I say unto you that whoso forbideth to marry is not ordained of God for it is ordained of God unto man9

Shaker doctrine opposed marriage in favor of a life of total celibacy. For Mother Ann Lee, celibacy was “the key to sinless perfection and salvation.” A late eighteenth-century convert to Shakerism named Reuben Rathbun wrote, “The natural seed of copulation was looked upon as the most unclean and hateful of any thing in the natural creation,” and celibacy was required as the necessary “cross against the flesh.” The Shaker doctrine of celibacy led to an explicit segregation of the sexes and, as one historian has explained, became the “basis of its theology and its communal structuring.” (Garrett, Origins of the Shakers, 152–153, 223, 233–234.)  


wherefore it is lawful that he should have one wife & they twain shall be one flesh10

See Mark 10:7–9.  


& all this that the Earth might answer the end of its Creation & that it might be filled with the measure of man according to his creation before the world was made11

JS’s revision of the Bible earlier declared that God created all things, including human beings, “spiritually before they were naturally upon the face of the Earth.” (Old Testament Revision 1, p. 5 [Moses 3:5].)  


& whoso forbideth to abstain from meats that man should not eat the same is not ordained of God for behold the beasts of the field & the fowls of the air & that which cometh of the Earth is ordained for the use of man for food & for raiment & that he might have in abundance12

Unlike the proscription against marriage and sexual relations, the principle of vegetarianism was not in general practice among the Shakers. Still, as early as 1820 there was an attempt on the part of the Ministry, located in New Lebanon, New York, to persuade Shaker communities to adopt vegetarianism, and leaders spoke against the use of meat, particularly pork. This revelation’s statement that it was “not ordained of God” to teach that believers should “abstain from meats that man should not eat the same” is evidence of the principle of vegetarianism being a belief held among the North Union Shakers in 1831. Teachings against the consumption of pork, apparently connected to the biblical prohibition observed by the Israelites, were reportedly not uncommon among Mormons living in the Kirtland area. Levi Hancock recorded that around May 1831, “the Preaching in Kirtland once was against the use of Pork— Once Joseph asked me to help him feed his hogs. I did so I osserved [observed] that the Jews never ate Pork He answered If I eat pork I will know what my hogs eat! And I left to this conclusion there are sometimes extremes in Preaching.” Hancock went on to explain that JS described the Israelite law against pork as a proscription God established for a specific time and place but that “Israel was so bound up with law that they still kept up the old established practice of not eating hog meat Finaly they got so much law they could not keep it themselves.” (Stein, Shaker Experience, 156–158; Puskar-Pasewicz, “Debates over Meatless Diets in Nineteenth-Century Shaker Communities,” 109–120; Hancock, Autobiography, ca. 1896, 22.)  


but it is not given that one man should possess that which is above an other wherefore the world lieth in sin & wo be unto man that shedeth blood or that wasteth flesh & hath no need13

Earlier, in his revision of the Bible, JS modified part of Genesis 9:5 to read “surely blood shall not be shed only for meat to save your lives and the blood of every beast will I require at your hands.” (Old Testament Revision 1, p. 24 [Joseph Smith Translation, Genesis 9:11].)  


& again verily I say unto you that the son of man cometh not in the form of a woman14

In 1806, more than twenty years after Ann Lee’s death, Ohio Shakers wrote to the Lead Ministry in New Lebanon, New York, to “request the privilege of opening to the world the first Foundation & Pillar” of their faith—that “Christ’s Second Appearance” had been in the person of Ann Lee. Permission was granted, and the 1808 publication of The Testimony of Christ’s Second Appearing became “the first General Statement of the present faith & principles” of the Believers. No contemporary evidence exists that Lee herself ever unambiguously taught such a doctrine. As their Christology developed, Shakers proclaimed that the “Christ spirit,” the divine anointing, filled Ann Lee in this last dispensation just as it filled Jesus in an earlier dispensation. This was necessary because a dual creation—man and woman—demanded a dual redemption in the form of Jesus and Ann Lee. The second appearing of the Christ spirit in Mother Ann restored “that which was lost by the transgression of the first woman” and “finish[ed] the work of man’s final redemption.” This belief was also rooted in the Shaker view of an androgynous God, with “Christ & Mother as representatives of the Dual principle in Deity.” (Stein, Shaker Experience, 68–72, 260, 326.)  


neither of a man traveling on the Earth wherefore be not deceived but continue in steadfastness looking forth for the Heavens to be shaken & the Earth to tremble & to reel to & fro as a drunken man & for the vallies to be exhalted15

The copy of this revelation that originated with Ashbel Kitchell has “to rise & be exalted.” (“Mormon Interview,” 11 [D&C 49:23].)  


& for the Mountains to be made low & for the rough places to become smooth16

Shakers rejected the premillennialist idea that great cataclysms would accompany a second advent of Christ and that “the world is to be destroyed by fire.” Instead, Shakers argued that a spiritual fire would purge the wicked, and that they felt “its operation upon our own souls, and have found it to be, in very deed, a consuming fire to lust and pride, and every other corruption of man’s fallen nature.” (Summary View of the Millennial Church, or United Society of Believers, 148–149.)  


& all this when the Angel shall sound his trumpet but before this great day of the Lord shall come Jacob shall flourish in the wilderness & the Lamanites

A name used in the Book of Mormon to refer to the descendants or followers of Laman, one of the sons of Lehi. The Book of Mormon explained that Lehi and his Israelite family migrated from Jerusalem to America around 600 BC. After Lehi’s death, his family ...

View Glossary
shall blossom as the rose & Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

View Glossary
shall flourish upon the Hills & rejoice upon the Mountains & shall be assembled together [p. 81]
from the begining & that which I have promised I have so fulfi lled & the Nations of the earth shall bow to it & if not of them  selves they shall come down for that which is now exalted of  itself shall be laid low of power. wherefore I give unto you  a commandment

Generally, a divine mandate that church members were expected to obey; more specifically, a text dictated by JS in the first-person voice of Deity that served to communicate knowledge and instruction to JS and his followers. Occasionally, other inspired texts...

View Glossary
that ye go among this People & say unto them  like unto mine Apostle

A title indicating one sent forth to preach; later designated as a specific ecclesiastical and priesthood office. By 1830, JS and Oliver Cowdery were designated as apostles. The “Articles and Covenants” of the church explained that an “apostle is an elder...

View Glossary
of old whose name was Peter beli eve on the name of the Lord Jesus who was on the Earth  & is to come the begining & the end. Repent & be baptized

An ordinance in which an individual is immersed in water for the remission of sins. The Book of Mormon explained that those with necessary authority were to baptize individuals who had repented of their sins. Baptized individuals also received the gift of...

View Glossary
in  the name of Jesus christ according to the holy commandment  for the remission of sins & whoso doeth this shall receive the  gift of the Holy Ghost8

See Acts 2:38.  


by the laying on of the hands

After baptism, new converts were confirmed members of the church “by the laying on of the hands, & the giving of the Holy Ghost.” According to JS’s history, the first confirmations were administered at the organization of the church on 6 April 1830. By March...

View Glossary
of the  Elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
of this Church

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
. & again I say unto you that whoso forbideth  to marry is not ordained of God for it is ordained of God unto  man9

Shaker doctrine opposed marriage in favor of a life of total celibacy. For Mother Ann Lee, celibacy was “the key to sinless perfection and salvation.” A late eighteenth-century convert to Shakerism named Reuben Rathbun wrote, “The natural seed of copulation was looked upon as the most unclean and hateful of any thing in the natural creation,” and celibacy was required as the necessary “cross against the flesh.” The Shaker doctrine of celibacy led to an explicit segregation of the sexes and, as one historian has explained, became the “basis of its theology and its communal structuring.” (Garrett, Origins of the Shakers, 152–153, 223, 233–234.)  


wherefore it is lawful that he should have one wife &  they twain shall be one flesh10

See Mark 10:7–9.  


& all this that the Earth might  answer the end of its Creation & that it might be filled with  the measure of man according to his creation before the world  was made11

JS’s revision of the Bible earlier declared that God created all things, including human beings, “spiritually before they were naturally upon the face of the Earth.” (Old Testament Revision 1, p. 5 [Moses 3:5].)  


& whoso forbideth to abstain from meats that man shou ld not eat the same is not ordained of God for behold the beasts  of the field & the fowls of the air & that which cometh of the  Earth is ordained for the use of man for food & for raiment  & that he might have in abundance12

Unlike the proscription against marriage and sexual relations, the principle of vegetarianism was not in general practice among the Shakers. Still, as early as 1820 there was an attempt on the part of the Ministry, located in New Lebanon, New York, to persuade Shaker communities to adopt vegetarianism, and leaders spoke against the use of meat, particularly pork. This revelation’s statement that it was “not ordained of God” to teach that believers should “abstain from meats that man should not eat the same” is evidence of the principle of vegetarianism being a belief held among the North Union Shakers in 1831. Teachings against the consumption of pork, apparently connected to the biblical prohibition observed by the Israelites, were reportedly not uncommon among Mormons living in the Kirtland area. Levi Hancock recorded that around May 1831, “the Preaching in Kirtland once was against the use of Pork— Once Joseph asked me to help him feed his hogs. I did so I osserved [observed] that the Jews never ate Pork He answered If I eat pork I will know what my hogs eat! And I left to this conclusion there are sometimes extremes in Preaching.” Hancock went on to explain that JS described the Israelite law against pork as a proscription God established for a specific time and place but that “Israel was so bound up with law that they still kept up the old established practice of not eating hog meat Finaly they got so much law they could not keep it themselves.” (Stein, Shaker Experience, 156–158; Puskar-Pasewicz, “Debates over Meatless Diets in Nineteenth-Century Shaker Communities,” 109–120; Hancock, Autobiography, ca. 1896, 22.)  


but it is not given that  one man should possess that which is above an other wherefore  the world lieth in sin & wo be unto man that shedeth  blood or that wasteth flesh & hath no need13

Earlier, in his revision of the Bible, JS modified part of Genesis 9:5 to read “surely blood shall not be shed only for meat to save your lives and the blood of every beast will I require at your hands.” (Old Testament Revision 1, p. 24 [Joseph Smith Translation, Genesis 9:11].)  


& again verily I  say unto you that the son of man cometh not in the form  of a woman14

In 1806, more than twenty years after Ann Lee’s death, Ohio Shakers wrote to the Lead Ministry in New Lebanon, New York, to “request the privilege of opening to the world the first Foundation & Pillar” of their faith—that “Christ’s Second Appearance” had been in the person of Ann Lee. Permission was granted, and the 1808 publication of The Testimony of Christ’s Second Appearing became “the first General Statement of the present faith & principles” of the Believers. No contemporary evidence exists that Lee herself ever unambiguously taught such a doctrine. As their Christology developed, Shakers proclaimed that the “Christ spirit,” the divine anointing, filled Ann Lee in this last dispensation just as it filled Jesus in an earlier dispensation. This was necessary because a dual creation—man and woman—demanded a dual redemption in the form of Jesus and Ann Lee. The second appearing of the Christ spirit in Mother Ann restored “that which was lost by the transgression of the first woman” and “finish[ed] the work of man’s final redemption.” This belief was also rooted in the Shaker view of an androgynous God, with “Christ & Mother as representatives of the Dual principle in Deity.” (Stein, Shaker Experience, 68–72, 260, 326.)  


neither of <a> man traveling on the Earth wherefore  be not deceived but continue in steadfastness looking forth  for the Heavens to <be> shaken & the Earth to tremble & to reel to  & fro as a drunken man & for the vallies to be exhalted15

The copy of this revelation that originated with Ashbel Kitchell has “to rise & be exalted.” (“Mormon Interview,” 11 [D&C 49:23].)  


& for  the Mountains to be made low & for the rough places to  become smooth16

Shakers rejected the premillennialist idea that great cataclysms would accompany a second advent of Christ and that “the world is to be destroyed by fire.” Instead, Shakers argued that a spiritual fire would purge the wicked, and that they felt “its operation upon our own souls, and have found it to be, in very deed, a consuming fire to lust and pride, and every other corruption of man’s fallen nature.” (Summary View of the Millennial Church, or United Society of Believers, 148–149.)  


& all this when the Angel shall sound his  trumpet but before this great day of the Lord shall come  Jacob shall flourish in the wilderness & the Lamanit[e]s

A name used in the Book of Mormon to refer to the descendants or followers of Laman, one of the sons of Lehi. The Book of Mormon explained that Lehi and his Israelite family migrated from Jerusalem to America around 600 BC. After Lehi’s death, his family ...

View Glossary
shall  blossom as the rose & Zion

A specific location in Missouri; also a literal or figurative gathering of believers in Jesus Christ, characterized by adherence to ideals of harmony, equality, and purity. In JS’s earliest revelations “the cause of Zion” was used to broadly describe the ...

View Glossary
shall flourish upon the Hills  & rejoice upon the Mountains & shall be assembled together [p. 81]
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This revelation directed Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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, Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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, and Leman Copley

Ca. 1781–20 Apr./May 1862. Born in Connecticut. Son of Samuel Copley. Moved to Pittsford, Rutland Co., Vermont, by 1800. Married Sally Cooley. Joined United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (Shakers). Moved to Thompson Township, Geauga Co...

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to visit a community of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (popularly called Shakers) in North Union, Ohio. Copley, a recent convert to the Church of Christ

The Book of Mormon related that when Christ set up his church in the Americas, “they which were baptized in the name of Jesus, were called the church of Christ.” The first name used to denote the church JS organized on 6 April 1830 was “the Church of Christ...

View Glossary
and a former Shaker himself,1

See Revelation, 4 Feb. 1831 [D&C 41]. The Copley name was associated with the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing from as early as 1803. (De Pillis, “Development of Mormon Communitarianism,” 124.)  


“was anxious that some of the elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
should go to his former brethren and preach the gospel.”2

Whitmer, History, 26. Shaker elder Ashbel Kitchell also indicated that Copley had told the Mormons living in Thompson, Ohio, that the Shakers would be converted by the missionary effort. (“Mormon Interview,” 15.)  


JS’s history characterized Copley as one who was “apparently honest hearted, but still retained ideas that the Shakers were right in some particulars of their faith.” Copley’s retention of some Shaker beliefs was apparently the catalyst for discussions that prompted this revelation. JS’s history explained, “In order to have more perfect understanding on the subject, I [JS] inquired of the Lord and received the following revelation.”3

JS History, vol. A-1, 112.  


The visit mandated by this revelation was not the first contact between the two religious societies. The previous fall, Oliver Cowdery

3 Oct. 1806–3 Mar. 1850. Clerk, teacher, justice of the peace, lawyer, newspaper editor. Born at Wells, Rutland Co., Vermont. Son of William Cowdery and Rebecca Fuller. Raised Congregationalist. Moved to western New York and clerked at a store, ca. 1825–1828...

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and his missionary companions made initial contact with the community of Shakers living in North Union.4

Shaker leader Richard McNemar left an account of Cowdery’s visit with Shakers living in another Ohio community at Union Village, near present-day Lebanon in Warren County, on his way to preach to American Indian communities west of Missouri. McNemar described Cowdery’s preaching and said that he left a copy of the Book of Mormon with one of their members. (Goodwillie, “Shaker Richard McNemar,” 138–145.)  


That interaction had unsettled the Shaker presiding elder, Ashbel Kitchell, who was uncertain what to make of the new faith. Despite his uneasiness, Kitchell reported that the Shakers “continued on friendly terms” with the Mormons “in the way of trade and other acts of good neighborship untill the spring of 1831.”5

“Mormon Interview,” 4.  


Sidney Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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and Leman Copley

Ca. 1781–20 Apr./May 1862. Born in Connecticut. Son of Samuel Copley. Moved to Pittsford, Rutland Co., Vermont, by 1800. Married Sally Cooley. Joined United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (Shakers). Moved to Thompson Township, Geauga Co...

View Full Bio
apparently responded the revelation by immediately departing for the Shaker settlement at North Union, approximately eighteen miles from Kirtland

Located ten miles south of Lake Erie. Settled by 1811. Organized by 1818. Population in 1830 about 55 Latter-day Saints and 1,000 others; in 1838 about 2,000 Saints and 1,200 others; in 1839 about 100 Saints and 1,500 others. Mormon missionaries visited township...

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, Ohio. It appears Parley P. Pratt

12 Apr. 1807–13 May 1857. Farmer, editor, publisher, teacher, school administrator, legislator, explorer, author. Born at Burlington, Otsego Co., New York. Son of Jared Pratt and Charity Dickinson. Traveled west with brother William to acquire land, 1823....

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departed Kirtland the next day. The revelation is dated 7 May, a Saturday, and Kitchell recorded that the Mormon company arrived “on saturday evening.”6

“Mormon Interview,” 4.  


Mormon sources report only briefly the Shakers’ reaction to this revelation and other teachings by the missionaries. John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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, for instance, later wrote that the assigned elders

A male leader in the church generally; an ecclesiastical and priesthood office or one holding that office; a proselytizing missionary. The Book of Mormon explained that elders ordained priests and teachers and administered “the flesh and blood of Christ unto...

View Glossary
“went and proclaimed according to the rev[e]lation given to them, but the shakers hearkened not to their words, and receivd not the gospel at that time.”7

Whitmer, History, 26.  


Kitchell, by contrast, recorded a detailed account of the visit. He reported that the group “tarried all night, and in the course of the evening, the doctrines of the cross and the Mormon faith were both investigated.” The next day, 8 May, Pratt arrived from Kirtland, and the Mormon delegation spoke to congregated Shakers after their morning Sabbath meeting. Rigdon reportedly declared to the congregation that “he had a message from the Lord Jesus Christ to this people” and explained to his hearers that it was a written message. When he obtained leave of the Shakers, he commenced to read aloud, apparently verbatim, this revelation. According to Kitchell, the Mormon preachers—Rigdon, Pratt, and Copley—asked permission to hear how the congregated Shakers felt about their message. Kitchell wrote that his people indicated “they were fully satisfied with what they had, and wished to have nothing to do with either them or their Christ.— On hearing this Rigdon professed to be satisfied, and put his paper by; but Parley Pratt arose and commenced shakeing his coattail; he said he shook the dust from his garments as a testimony against us, that we had rejected the word of the Lord Jesus.”8

Pratt’s actions roused Kitchell, who recorded, “Before the words were out of his mouth, I was to him, and said;— You filthy Beast, dare you presume to come in here, and try to imitate a man of God by shaking your filthy tail; confess your sins and purge your soul from your lusts, and your other abominations before you ever presume to do the like again, &c. . . . I then turned to Leman who had been crying while the message was reading, and said to him, you hypocrite, you knew better;— you knew where the living work of God was; but for the sake of indulgence, you could consent to deceive yourself & them . . . This struck him dead also, and dryed up his tears;— I then turned to the Believers and said, now we will go home and started.” (“Mormon Interview,” 13–14.)  


After this contentious exchange, Pratt departed immediately for Kirtland, while Rigdon stayed for supper before departing and Copley spent the night in North Union.9

“Mormon Interview,” 4, 6–7, 12–14.  


This encounter apparently fulfilled Pratt’s commission to preach to the Shakers because a revelation dated the following Monday assigned Pratt a different missionary companion and directed him to “go forth among the Churches & strengthen them by the word of exhortation.”10
Copley

Ca. 1781–20 Apr./May 1862. Born in Connecticut. Son of Samuel Copley. Moved to Pittsford, Rutland Co., Vermont, by 1800. Married Sally Cooley. Joined United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (Shakers). Moved to Thompson Township, Geauga Co...

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returned shortly thereafter to North Union and asked to be readmitted into the Shaker society. Kitchell and Copley then went to Copley’s farm in Thompson

Located about twenty miles northeast of Kirtland, Ohio. Settled 1800. Surveyed 1809. Incorporated 1817. Population in 1830 about 700. Population in 1840 about 1,000. Latter-day Saints from Colesville, New York, were directed to settle in area on 759 acres...

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and confronted the Mormons who had recently settled there from Colesville

Area settled, beginning 1785. Formed from Windsor Township, Apr. 1821. Population in 1830 about 2,400. Villages within township included Harpursville, Nineveh, and Colesville. Susquehanna River ran through eastern portion of township. JS worked for Joseph...

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, New York, at Copley’s invitation. Copley reportedly ordered the Mormons off of his land.11

“Mormon Interview,” 15; Knight, Autobiographical Sketch, 2–3; see also Historical Introduction to Revelation, 10 June 1831 [D&C 54].  


Following the failed attempt to convert the Shakers at North Union, Mormon missionary interactions with Shakers were apparently rare.
The 1833 Book of Commandments and the 1835 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants both erroneously date this revelation to March 1831. When John Whitmer

27 Aug. 1802–11 July 1878. Farmer, stock raiser, newspaper editor. Born in Pennsylvania. Son of Peter Whitmer Sr. and Mary Musselman. Member of German Reformed Church, Fayette, Seneca Co., New York. Baptized by Oliver Cowdery, June 1829, most likely in Seneca...

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copied it into Revelation Book 1, likely in May or June 1831, he dated it to 7 May 1831. Ashbel Kitchell copied the revelation into his pocket journal and also listed its date as 7 May 1831, so his copy likely originated from the same text that was copied into Revelation Book 1. Kitchell probably either asked to copy the revelation after Rigdon

19 Feb. 1793–14 July 1876. Tanner, farmer, minister. Born at St. Clair, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania. Son of William Rigdon and Nancy Gallaher. Joined United Baptists, ca. 1818. Preached at Warren, Trumbull Co., Ohio, and vicinity, 1819–1821. Married Phebe...

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recited it to the congregation or obtained a copy prepared for and left with the Shakers by the missionaries. The first published version of the revelation, in The Evening and the Morning Star, listed only May 1831 as the date.12

“Revelation, Given May, 1831,” The Evening and the Morning Star, Nov. 1832, [7].  


Facts